“Under the Banyan Tree” in Amazon !

Greetings to you.

After two years of launching my blogs in the field of Spirituality, I have just ventured into the field of consolidating the blogs and putting them in the form of a book.

The first set of books titled

“Under the Banyan Tree” – a comprehensive guide for understanding Adi Sankaracharya’s Dakshinamurthy Sthothram in English

ஆலமரத்தடி ஆசானின் அருள் வாக்கு in Tamil

have just been released in Amazon.

The product details are given in the Snapshots attached (taken from Amazon’s Indian Market place; the same is available at Amazon’s other market places across the globe in US, UK, Australia etc).

The English book contains the Sanskrit Verses, transliterations and translations in English and Tamil, word by word meaning, understanding of the Sloka and the Vedantic (philosophical) concepts outlined in the Verses. The Tamil book is a condensed version containing the Sanskrit Verse, Meaning in English and Tamil.

The books are free for Kindle Unlimited users and is priced downloading/reading in Kindle.

I wanted to publish them as free; however, Amazon’s pricing policy for Ebooks demand a minimum price (perhaps to cover their hosting charges etc). I immediately decided to use the royalties received in the sale of these books towards charity. Coming from a family of teachers, I decided to use the monetary gains towards meeting the educational expenses of needy boys and girls, here in India.

May I request your indulgence in buying the book/these books in Amazon Kindle/Kindle Unlimited. Kindly forward this message to your friends and families who maybe interested in the field of Spirituality.

Dakshinamurthy Sthothram – Sloka 2 – Introduction – Part 1- The Creator

The Creator

The Creator:

In all the Sanatana Dharma śāstrās, it is stated that God/Brahman/Ishwar/Paramatma known as the Ultimate Reality is the one and only cause of the universe. He is the Creator, the Maintainer and the Destroyer.

அகர முதல எழுத்தெல்லாம்

ஆதிபகவன் முதற்றே உலகு:

அவனின்றி ஓர் அணுவும் அசையாது.

Who is this Ultimate Reality? யார் அந்த “அவன் – ஆதி பகவன் ”?

Mundaka Upanishad defines this Ultimate Reality as

यत्तदद्रेश्यमग्राह्यमगोत्रमवर्णंमचक्षुःश्रोत्रं तदपाणिपादम् |

नित्यं विभुं सर्वगतं सुसूक्ष्मं तदव्ययं यद्भूतयोनिं परिपश्यन्ति धीराः || 1.1.6 ||

That which is invisible, inconceivable, without lineage, without any classifications (Varṇa), without eyes and ears, without hands and feet, and that which is eternal, all-pervasive, omnipresent, extremely subtle and undecaying” – that is what the wise behold as the source of all beings.

This essence is the first Sloka of Isavasya Upanishad too (isavasyam idam sarvam). You can get the details of the same at https://soundar53.substack.com/p/isavasya-upanisad-sloka-1-46e

Adi Sankaracharya says:
That omniscient and omnipotent source must be Brahman from which occur the birth, continuance and dissolution of this universe that is manifested through name and form, that is associated with diverse agents and experiences, that provides the support for actions and results, having well-regulated space, time and causation, and that deifies all thoughts about the real nature of its creation. (Brahma Sutra, I. 1 2)

Sanatana Dharma is perhaps the only one which gives such a clear perspective of this concept without calling any single individual as God.

The Basic requirements for Creation :

Let us try and understand some basic concepts in creation. The requirements for creation are as under:

1. The efficient cause (Nimitta Kaaran) whose activity makes something and whose inactivity does not make anything.

2. The material cause (Sadharan Kaaran) or the ‘raw material’ without which nothing can be made – Prakriti or Nature

3. The common cause (Upadan Kaaran) or the accessories helping in creation.

Efficient cause can be further divided into two:

a. Major efficient cause or the engineer or the master architect who creates, manages and destroys – Ishwar

b. Minor efficient cause or the user of the creation – Souls. Without it, the creation is purposeless.

Material cause or Nature is inert non-living and hence incapable of being organized or disorganized itself in a planned manner. It needs an organizer or efficient cause for that.

Common cause includes the time and space.

This is true for any creation that happens in world – by Ishwar or by us.

Now, the next logical question that may arise in one’s mind is “How can this universe and physical beings come out from such an entity that is beyond physical attributes”?

The web that answers:

For this we should watch two interesting videos (one by Mr. David Attenborough).

We will see what these amazing videos convey w.r.t our subject – the creator in our next blog

Lockdown Gossip – “The caw coo colloquium”

Ever since we returned back to Bangalore in April 2021 from the USA, it has been exactly the same conditions like what we faced when we entered NewYork in early February 2020. LOCKED DOWN.

Locked down essentially means you get lots of time to do “Roof top walking” a familiar routine in the early morning and evening for me; this time with a difference – with lots of friends and companions. Strange!

Yes. It is literally an expedition to the animal kingdom and in particular THE BIRDS. I can assure you that if the lockdown continues further I can probably claim to have understood what these wonderful creations of God speak among themselves.

Here is Cathy, the Crow and Peggy, the Pigeon in a conversation on a bright and sunny day. True to the current situation, they had their cup of woes too. Let us hear them.

Well, Don’t worry Cathy and Peggy. Normalcy should be restored soon. Best wishes.

Note: Videos and photos taken on my iPhone X.

Video Link

Dakshinamurthy Sthothram – Sloka 2 – Prologue – The Creation Process & Science

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It has a broad physics program ranging from studying the Standard Model (including the Higgs boson) to searching for extra dimensions and particles that could make up dark matter. The CMS detector is built around a huge solenoid magnet. This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a field of 4 tesla, about 100,000 times the magnetic field of the Earth. The field is confined by a steel “yoke” that forms the bulk of the detector’s 14,000-tonne weight. Credit: CERN

Wondering what has Higgs Boson to do with Dakshinamurthy Stothram !

Let us have a quick overview of the current scientific scenario related to Theory of Creation (Information collated from the public domain)

Big Bang Theory

When the universe began, it was just hot, tiny particles mixed with light and energy. It was nothing like what we see now. As everything expanded and took up more space, it cooled down. The tiny particles grouped together. They formed atoms. Then those atoms grouped together. Over lots of time, atoms came together to form stars and galaxies. The first stars created bigger atoms and groups of atoms. That led to more stars being born. At the same time, galaxies were crashing and grouping together. As new stars were being born and dying, then things like asteroids, comets, planets, and black holes formed! How long did all of this take? Well, we now know that the universe is 13,800,000,000 years old—that’s 13.8 billion. That is a very long time. That’s pretty much how the universe began. Because it got so big and led to such great things, some people call it the “Big Bang.” But maybe a better name would be the “Everywhere Stretch.”

The Multiverse Theory:

What happened before the Big Bang? No one is sure, and some physicists contend that the word “before” has no clear meaning in this context. The universe could have been eternal, or it could have had a beginning — we just don’t know. In recent years, scientists have developed several theoretical models that attempt to describe epochs that preceded the Big Bang. Advances in physics over the past 30 years have led some physicists and cosmologists to the mind-boggling conclusion that the universe we inhabit is just one of many in existence — perhaps an infinite number. If these scientists are right, then all the stars and galaxies we see in the night sky are but a tiny fraction of an incomprehensibly vast assemblage that scientists call the multiverse.

String Theory in support of Multiverse:

One of the arguments put forth for the existence of a multiverse arises is the string theory, which holds that matter is ultimately composed not of particles but of unimaginably small, vibrating strings or loops of energy. String theory’s equations seem to have a staggering number of possible solutions (perhaps as many as 10^500 — that’s a one followed by 500 zeros). Some string theorists argue that each of these solutions describes a different universe, each with its own physical properties.

Higgs Boson – God Particle:

God Particle or the Higgs boson is the fundamental particle associated with the Higgs field, a field that gives mass to other fundamental particles such as electrons and quarks. A particle’s mass determines how much it resists changing its speed or position when it encounters a force. Not all fundamental particles have mass. The photon, which is the particle of light and carries the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all.

Scientists are now studying the characteristic properties of the Higgs boson to determine if it precisely matches the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics. If the Higgs boson deviates from the model, it may provide clues to new particles that only interact with other Standard Model particles through the Higgs boson and thereby lead to new scientific discoveries.

Back to Basics:

After these overviews on the theory of creation, here is an observation by Alessandro Fedrizzi (Professor of Quantum Physics at Heriot Watt UNiversity) & Massimiliano Proietti, PhD Candidate)

“The scientific method is after all founded on the reliable notions of observation, measurement and repeatability. A fact, as established by a measurement, should be objective, such that all observers can agree with it. But in a paper recently published in Science Advances, we show that, in the micro-world of atoms and particles that is governed by the strange rules of quantum mechanics, two different observers are entitled to their own facts. In other words, according to our best theory of the building blocks of nature itself, facts can actually be subjective. Observers are powerful players in the quantum world. According to the theory, particles can be in several places or states at once – this is called a superposition. But oddly, this is only the case when they aren’t observed. The second you observe a quantum system, it picks a specific location or state – breaking the superposition. The fact that nature behaves this way has been proven multiple times in the lab. (https://theconversation.com/quantum-physics-our-study-suggests-objective-reality-doesnt-exist-126805)”.

Here is an interesting observation, which I read in one of the news reports recently :

Whether or not there is a “God particle,” we know this about Christ: “For by him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible . . . all things were created by him and for him” (Colossians 1:16).

Sounds familiar – We are trying to find out the cause of Infinity (“Purnam”) and trying our best to define it within the gamut of time and space; well, these scientific work backed up by extremely complex mathematical equations and powerfully equipped astronomy can continue without end. Let us recollect the Shanthi Sloka of Isavasya Upanishad:

पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पूर्णमुदच्यते

पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते

शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः

Isavasyam idham sarvam” ! Isn’t it? This is exactly what Vedas, Upanishads, Saints and Philosophers from Hinduism had told centuries ago through their “darshanas” (perspectives), “vaadaas” (deliberations), commentaries and Slokas.

Sloka No 2 focusses on “Creator and the process”. Let us see “HIM/HER”, the Creator and HIS/HER process for creation in the subsequent blogs.

Dakshinamurthy Sthothram – Sloka 1 – Conclusion

Adi Sankarar, Manicka Vasagar, Thirumoolar

Essentially the first Sloka of the Dakṣiṇāmūrti Sthothram deals with “atma svaroopam” which Adi Sankaracharya reveals with two day to day examples of “darpana nagari” and “svapna nagari”. The Atma is revealed as the base “adishtaanam” of the Universe, as the independent existence – truth “sathya”, as the one unaffected by the events and whatever happens “asamgaha” and finally as non dual “advayam”, the Brahman Himself.

In this first verse, from the experiential standpoint we discover that the world exists in our mind. The world exists because we experience it. Usually we think the other way around. The conventional perspective is world exists therefore we experience it. This is called srishti drishti vada . (Srushti means creation. Drishti means seeing. Vada means doctrine or teaching). It means, you see the world because it has been created. In the ongoing “Global Festival of Oneness 2021” conducted by Advaita Academy, there was an interesting presentation on this. This is how this debate on the two perspective was summed up pictorially by the speaker.

But the presentation by Sankara in this first verse is opposite to the conventional view. The creation exists because you see it. The world in the mind exists because you are there to experience it. If you are not there to witness the world, the world in your mind would not exist. What you directly experience is only the contents of your mind. So the vision conveyed by the first verse is drishti srishti vada. It is opposite to the conventional perspective.

ஆதி சங்கரரின் தக்ஷிணா மூர்தி ஸ்தோத்திரத்தின் முதல் பண்ணின் கருத்துக்கள் சைவ சித்தாந்தத்தில் வெளிப்படுகிறது. திருமூலர் திருமந்திரத்தில் சொல்கிறார்:

மனத்தில் எழுந்ததுஓர் மாயக் கண்ணாடி;

நினைப்பின் அதனின் நிழலையும் காணார்;

வினைப்பயன் போக விளக்கியும் கொள்ளார்;

புறக்கடை இச்சித்துப் போகின்ற வாறே (திருமந்திரம், 1681)

தன்னை அறியக் கிளம்பியவர்கள் தன்னுடைய மூலை முடுக்குகளிலெல்லாம் தன்னைத் தேடினார்கள்; மனம் எதிர்ப்பட்டது; அங்கும் தேடினார்கள்; அது ஒரு மாயப் பிம்பத்தை எழுப்பிக் காட்டியது. அடிமுடி தேடிய படலத்தில், முடி தேடிப் போன பிரம்மன், முடியைக் காணாமல் அன்னப் பறவையைக் கண்டு திரும்பிவிட்டதைப்போல, தன்னையே தேடிப் போனவர்கள், தன்னைக் காணாமல் ஏதோ ஒரு மாயப் பிம்பத்தைக் கண்டு அதுவே தான் என்று எண்ணித் திரும்பி விட்டார்கள். விளங்காதவர்கள்; விளக்கிச் சொன்னாலும் விளங்கிக் கொள்ளத் தெரியாதவர்கள். தலைவாயில் அடைத்திருப்பதாக எண்ணி ஏமாந்து பின்னால் சென்று புறக்கடை வாசலைத் தட்டிக்கொண்டு நிற்கிறார்கள். தன்னை அல்ல, தன்னுடைய நிழலைக்கூட இவர்களால் கண்டுகொள்ள முடியாது.

Brahman is in essence the indwelling Controller for all activity seen in any being whatsoever. That is why Bhagwan Ramana Maharishi says that stop unwanted discussions/arguments about the real or unreal world and objects. Start looking inwards in his “Ulladhu Naarpadhu” – உள்ளது நாற்பது.

உலகுமெய்பொய்த் தோற்ற முலகறிவா மன்றென்

றுலகுசுக மன்றென் றுரைத்தெ — னுலகுவிட்டுத்

தன்னையோர்ந் தொன்றிரண்டு தானற்று நானற்ற

வந்நிலையெல் லார்க்குமொப் பாம்.

What is the use of disputing: ‘The world is real’, ‘[No, it is] an unreal appearance’; ‘The world is sentient’, ‘It is not’; ‘The world is happiness’, ‘It is not’? Leaving [all thought about] the world and investigating [or knowing] oneself, [thereby] putting an end to [all disputes about] one and two [non-duality and duality], that state in which ‘I’ [ego] has [thereby] perished is agreeable to all. So instead of looking outward, start looking inward.

இதனையே திருமூலர் திருமந்திரம், 2956 பதியில்;

மனமாயை மாயை;இம் மாயை மயக்க;

மனமாயை தான்மாயமற்றொன்றும் இல்லை;

பினைமாய்வது இல்லைபிதற்றவும் வேண்டா;

தனைஆய்ந்து இருப்பது தத்துவம் தானே.

என தெளிவாக உரைக்கிறார். உங்களைப் பேதைமைப்படுத்துவதும் மயக்குவதும் நீங்களே உருவாக்கிச் செல்லங் கொஞ்சிப் பேணி வளர்த்து வைத்திருக்கிற மனம்தான். மனம் உங்களை மயக்குவதை நிறுத்துங்கள்; மனத்தை நீங்கள் மயக்குங்கள். மனம் என்கிற மாயை ஒழிந்துவிட்டால், பிறகு உங்களை மயக்கத்தக்கது வேறு ஒன்றும் இல்லை. ஒழித்துக்கட்ட வேண்டியதும் வேறு ஒன்றும் இல்லை. மனத்தின் தூண்டுதலுக்கு ஆட்பட்டுத் தாறுமாறாக நடந்துகொள்ளவும் தேவையில்லை. தன்னையே தான் ஆராய்ந்து, தானே தானாக இருப்பதுதான் யோகம்.

தன்னையே தான் ஆராய்தல் எப்படி? மாணிக்கவாசகர் சொல்கிறார்:

நான்ஆர்?என் உள்ளம்ஆர்ஞானங்கள்

ஆர்? என்னை யார்அறிவார்?

வானோர் பிரான்என்னை

ஆண்டுஇலனேல் மதிமயங்கி

ஊனார் உடைதலையில்

உண்பலிதேர் அம்பலவன்

தேன்ஆர் கமலமே

சென்றுஊதாய் கோத்தும்பீ

(திருவாசகம், திருக்கோத்தும்பி, 2). நான் யார், என் உள்ளம் எது, ஞானங்கள் எவை என்று அறிய வேண்டும்; என்னை அறிகிறவர் யார் என்றும் பார்க்க வேண்டும். எல்லாமே வானோர் பிரானாகிய சிவன்தான் என்று தன்னை அறிவிக்கும் பொறுப்பையும் அறியும் பொறுப்பையும் இறைவனிடம் ஒப்படைக்கிறார் பக்தியின் வழிவந்த மாணிக்கவாசகர். யோகத்தின் வழிவந்த திருமூலரோ அந்தப் பொறுப்பைத் தன் வசமே வைத்துக்கொள்கிறார்.

So, how do we elevate ourselves to that enquiry Who am I? How can I look inward? In answer to this question, Sages have identified four areas

  1. Study of Shastras and Shruti 2. The Kripa of the Guru 3. Yoga practice (Abhyasa) through meditation 4. God’s grace/Isvara Anugraha

When, by Shruti,, by the master’s favour, by practice of Yoga, and by the Grace of God, there arises a knowledge of one’s own Self, then, as a man regards the food he has eaten as one with himself, the Adept Yogin sees the universe as one with his Self, absorbed as the universe is in the Universal Ego which he has become.

References:

மேற்கோள் நூல்கள்

1. Dakṣiṇāmurty. Sthothram – Talks By Swami Paramarthananda; Transcribed by Sri P.S. Ramachandrn; Published by :Arsha Avinash

2. Dakshinamurti Stotra with Mānasollāsa of Sureśvarācārya translated by Alladi Mahadeva Sastri – from archives.org

3.சங்கரரின் தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி தோத்திரம்: சைவசித்தாந்த விளக்கம் – முனைவர்கோ.ந. முத்துக்குமாரசுவாமி – https://www.tamilhindu.com/

4. Prof. Mahadevan, IIM, Bangalore – https://www.sanskritfromhome.in/course/daksinamurtiSthothram /

5. https://Vedāntaḥstudents.com/class-notes/#1539832350612-778c6bda-cf96

6. தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி ஸ்தோத்திரம் – பகவான் ரமண மகரிஷி

Carnatic Musing 38 – Sringara Saktyayudha – Raga Rama Manohari

Composer:

Muthuswamy Dikshithar. Pl. refer http://musicinfoguide.blogspot.com/2007/08/muthuswami-dikshitar-1775-1835.html

Audio Link

Listen to Sanjay Subramanian at https://www.dropbox.com/s/cbi8nezfgrg59dq/Sanjay%20Subrahmanyan%20-%20shrngAra%20shaktyAyudhadhara%20-%20rAmamanOhari%20-%20dIkshitar-Je9UnymFHqs.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Verse

पल्लवि

शृङ्गार शक्त्यायुध धर शरवणस्य

दासोऽहं अनिशं धन धान्य प्रदस्य

समष्टि चरणम्

गङ्गामृत पूरित घटाभिषेकस्य

गद्य पद्यादि नुत कोमळतर पदस्य

अङ्गारकादि नव ग्रह वन्दितस्य

आदि मध्यान्त रहिताप्रमेय वरस्य

(मध्यम काल साहित्यम्)

जगदम्बिकादि सकल देवता मोहित

जननादि खेद भञ्जन चतुरतरस्य

नग राज सुता नन्दीश नव नन्दादि

भक्त जनान्तःकरणानन्द गुरु गुहस्य

variations –

नन्दादिनन्द्यादि

Meaning in Tamil

பல்லவி

சிங்காரவேலன் சரவணனின் அடிமை யான் எக்காலமும்

சீர்மிகு செல்வ வளம் வாரி வழங்கும் சக்தி வேலாயுதன்.. சிங்கார

சமஷ்டி சரணம்

நிரைகுட கங்கை நீர் புனித திருமுழுக்காடும்

உரைகவிபல போற்றும் கமலமலர்ப்பாதமுடை

அங்காரகன் சேர் நவகோளதிபதிகள் துதிக்கும்

ஆதி மத்ய அந்தமிலா அளவிலா மேன்மைமிகு..…. சிங்கார

அன்னை சக்தியுடன் அனத்து உம்பர்க்கும் அனந்தம் தரும்,

அல்லல்மிகு பிறவிப் பிணி தீர்க்கும் அதிவித்தகன்,

அன்னை உமையவள் மகேசனுடன்அடியார்க்கும்

நவசக்தி மைந்தருக்கும் அளவிலா இன்பமளி குருகுகன்…… சிங்கார

English Transliteration

pallavi

SRngAra SaktyAyudha dhara SaravaNasya

dAsO(a)haM aniSaM dhana dhAnya pradasya

samashTi caraNam

gangAmRta pUrita ghaTAbhishEkasya

gadya padyAdi nuta kOmaLa-tara padasya

angArakAdi nava graha vanditasya

Adi madhyAnta rahitApramEya varasya

(madhyama kAla sAhityam)

jagadambikAdi sakala dEvatA mOhita –

jananAdi khEda bhanjana catura-tarasya

naga rAja sutA nandISa nava nandAdi –

bhakta janAntaHkaraNAnanda guru guhasya

variations –

nandAdi – nandyAdi

kshEtra – Sikkil Singaravelan.

Meaning in English

I am the slave forever of Lord Saravana, the handsome one holding the powerful spear as weapon and who showers wealth and grains

He is the one:

who is bathed with pitchers filled with the waters of Ganga, with very tender feet which are glorified in prose and poetry, worshipped by the nine planets led by Angaraka, with neither beginning nor middle nor end,immeasurable eminent one, who charms all the celestials beginning with Parvati(the universal mother), expert at shattering the sorrow caused by birth etc. delights the hearts of Parvati, Nandi, Nava-nandanas and other devotees. He is Guruguha

Comments:

• This Kriti is in the sixth Vibhakti

• “SRngAra SaktyAyudha dhara” translates to Singaravelan in Tamil, as the lord is known in the Sikkal temple

• The Nava-Nandanas or Nava-Veeras are the sons of the Nava-Shaktis born by the grace of Shiva, and are Subrahmanya’s brothers. The eldest of them is Veerabahu. They assist him in war.

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

पल्लवि

शृङ्गार – handsome

शक्ति-आयुध – Spear (Vel in Tamil) as the weapon

धर – holding

शरवणस्य – Saravana

दासो-अहं – Servant, I am

अनिशं – for ever

धन धान्य – wealth and grains

प्रदस्य – giver

समष्टि चरणम्

गङ्गा अमृत – The Ganga River water

पूरित घट- Filled pot

अभिषेकस्य – the one who is bathed in

गद्य – prose

पद्य- poetry

आदि – etc

नुत – euologise/glorify

कोमळ-तर पदस्य – lotus like feet

अङ्गारक-आदि – Planet mars etc

नव ग्रह – nine planets

वन्दितस्य – worshipped

आदि मध्य-अन्त रहित- beginning, middle and end

अप्रमेय – immeay

वरस्य – eminent

जगद्-अम्बिका- the Goddess of the world – Parvati

आदि सकल देवता – and all celestials included

मोहित – charms

जनन-आदि खेद भञ्जन चतुर-तरस्य – the expert at shattering the sorrow caused by birth etc.

नग राज सुता – the consort of the king of serpents – i.e., consort of Siva viz. – Parvati

नन्दि-ईश – the God Nandi

नव नन्द-आदि – भक्त जन- all devitees including the the sons of the nine Shaktis of Siva

अन्तः-करण- minds

आनन्द – pleasing

गुरु गुहस्य – Guru Guha (signature name of the composer)

Dakshinamurthy Stothram- Sloka 1 – ஆன்மாவும் அண்டமும் – SELF & THE UNIVERSE – “JIVA & JAGAT”

We saw in the last two blogs the Vedantic Concepts behind the Mirror and Dream. Let us now see how Bhagwadpaada Adi Sankara uses these two examples and teaches us further.

DAKSHINAMURTHY STHOTHRAM SLOKA 1

विश्वं दर्पणदृश्यमाननगरीतुल्यं निजान्तर्गतं

पश्यन्नात्मनि मायया बहिरिवोद्भूतं यथा निद्रया

यः साक्षात्कुरुते प्रबोधसमये स्वात्मानमेवाद्वयं

तस्मै श्रीगुरुमूर्तये नम इदं श्रीदक्षिणामूर्तये ॥१॥

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்பு

நிலைக்கண்ணாடியில் பிரதிபலிக்கும் நகரமன்றோ

நிலையிலா இவ்வுலகமதின் நிழற்படம் நம்முள்ளே !

நம்முள்ளுறை தரணிதனை, நாம் உறவாடும் வெளியுலகமென

மனத்திரையில் காண்போம், விழித்தவுடன் மடியும் கனவென !

அவ்வாறே மாயையினால் மருவுடனே நமை அறியா நமக்கு,

ஆன்மீக விழிப்புணர்வூட்டி நம்முள்ளுறை தூய ஒருமையான

பரம்பொருளே நானெனும் ஆன்மா” எனும் அறிவு புகட்டும்

ஆதிஅந்தமிலா மோனநிலை ஆசானாம் அருள்மிகு

தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி  பொற்பாதம் பணிந்திடுவோம்

The Meaning:

“To Him who by illusion of Ātman, as by sleep, sees the Universe existing within Himself – like a city seen to exist within a mirror – as though it were manifested without; to Him who beholds, when awake, His own very Self, the second less; to Him who is incarnate in the Teacher; to Him in the Effulgent form facing the South, to Him (Siva) be this bow!”

First Line of the Sloka

विश्वं दर्पणदृश्यमाननगरीतुल्यं निजान्तर्गतं पश्यन्नात्मनि मायया बहिरिवोद्भूतं यथा निद्रया

Vishvam Darpana-Drshyamaana-Nagarii-Tulyam – viśvam means this visible universe; the universe which we see in our waking state is comparable to darpaṇa dṛśyamāna nagari tulyam, comparable to the reflected city being seen in a huge mirror.

Nija-Antargatam – This visvam is within oneself only

Pashyann-Aātmani – This visvam (the world we are experiencing within ourselves only) is actually existing in me, ātmani pasyathi.

Mayayaa –  because of the “aadhiṣṭāna ajnānam” i.e., avidya or maya (Ref the previous blogs)

bahiri udbhūtam – appears as though outside,

yathaa – like

nidrayaa – when we are asleep,

(the dream world which is really existing within ourselves appears as though outside, when we are asleep – implied meaning).

Iva – By using the word iva: as though outside, Sankaracharya conveyed that it is really not outside, everything is inside me only.

Second Line of the Sloka

यः साक्षात्कुरुते प्रबोधसमये स्वात्मानमेवाद्वयं Yah Saakssaat-Kurute Prabodha-Samaye Sva-[A]ātmaanam-Eva-Advayam

Yah:  – In this context refers to the sleeping person “supta puruṣaḥ”; and this sleeping person was seeing the svapna viśvam outside; the sleeping person was seeing the dream world outside;

prabhodha samaya –  but when the sleeping person wakes up, what is his experience; his outside dream world is resolved into himself. All elements of svapna viz. svpna deśa disappears into himself; svapna kālaḥ, svapna padārthaḥ, svapna jīvaḥ, they all dissolve effortlessly; since the entire dream world is resolved into himself, what remains? he the waker alone remains. Therefore, “supta puruṣaḥ, prabodha samaye,

advaiyam svatmānam sākṣātkurute” –  meaning that on waking up, the sleeping person recognises himself as the secondless one; without any dream object. After waking up, I do not see the waker; I claim myself to be the waker. This claiming is called sākṣātkāraha. I should not use any other verb. If I say I see the waker, waker appears to be another person. If I say I experience the waker; it appears as though waker is different. Suppose I say I become the waker; even that word is not correct strictly because; there is no becoming involved; I was the waker before, I am the waker now, therefore, I do not even become the waker. I claim myself to be the waker; this claiming is called sākṣātkāraha.

Similarly, in self-knowledge, I do not experience the ātma/ In self-knowledge I do not see the ātma. In self-knowledge I do not become the ātma; In self-knowledge I claim I am the ātma. And this peculiar process of claiming is called sākṣātkāraha. So, it is not coming face to face. sākṣātkāraha, if it is translated as direct experience, we will have all kinds of misconception that when I wake up Brahman will be standing in front, smiling, giving darshanam. It is not like that, I am the waker. Therefore, prabhoda samaye, on waking up supta puruṣaḥ svātmaanam advyayam eva sākṣātkārute.

Last Line of the Sloka

तस्मै श्रीगुरुमूर्तये नम इदं श्रीदक्षिणामूर्तये Tasmai Shrii-Guru-Muurtaye Nama Idam Shrii-Dakssinnaamuurtaye

tasmai  – means prabuddha puruṣāya; to that woken-up person, who is a jnāni; who is liberated; who knows I am jagatadhishtaanam, to that jnani my namaskaaram. So tasmai prabuddha puruṣāya, jnānine namaha. And who is that jnāni?

Shree gurumurthaye – who alone is a guru, who alone can serve as a guru and who is my guru, gurumoorthaye.

Namaha – my salutations.

Thus we can see that a complex concept in Philosophy is explained by Adi Sankara in just two lines using two simple day to day events in human life – the examples of viewing in a mirror and dreaming captures the essence of Vedanta. We will conclude the Sloka 1 in the next blog with a summary.

References:

மேற்கோள் நூல்கள்

1. Dakṣiṇāmurty. Sthothram – Talks By Swami Paramarthananda; Transcribed by Sri P.S. Ramachandrn; Published by :Arsha Avinash

2. Dakshinamurti Stotra with Mānasollāsa of Sureśvarācārya translated by Alladi Mahadeva Sastri

3.சங்கரரின் தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி தோத்திரம்: சைவசித்தாந்த விளக்கம் – முனைவர்கோ.ந. முத்துக்குமாரசுவாமிwww.tamilhindu.com/

4. Prof. Mahadevan, IIM, Bangalore – https://www.sanskritfromhome.in/course/daksinamurtiSthothram /

5. https://Vedāntaḥstudents.com/class-notes/#1539832350612-778c6bda-cf96

6. தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி ஸ்தோத்திரம் – பகவான் ரமண மகரிஷி

Arunodaya

Looking at the Sunrise with awe and reciting Aditya Hrudayam during my early morning walks has been my most enjoyable moment for the day for several years.

Nothing can be more invigorating than this particularly in this era of pandemic and lock down. The one hour that I spend in the early morning is worth the gold. That is what Aditya (Sun) seems to be telling me today morning.

Watch Him talk to me today, Sunday the 16th Morning between 0545 and 0645 Hrs in Bangalore

https://www.dropbox.com/s/782xv6yj94n67mq/Arunodaya%20.MOV?dl=0

Music Courtesy – Music Today Album Arunodayam – Bowli Raga

Dakshinamurthy Stothram – Sloka 1 – Introduction – Part 2 – Dream

We saw in the first part, the four features of the Mirror and the reflected image. These are adhiṣṭānatvam, sathyatvam, asaṃgattvam, advaiyatvam (the supporter, independent existence, unaffectedness and unitary nature of the Mirror and the opposites for the reflected images. Now let us see what happens in a dream.

The features of a dream:

Now have a look at the image below; someone (let us say it is myself) is having a dream about London.

Here I am, an young executive, after presenting my credentials to the HMS Authorities, I am being taken around for a tour of SW1 areas of London ( the dream city – स्वप्न नगरि svapna nagari) where I will be working. Wow. What a dream (स्वप्न svapna). Wow.

This Dream is a projection from myself; it is exclusive and unique to me and cannot be a collective event. For the purpose of the dream, I create a world within myself, a SW1 area in London, create the Queen, create the PM at 10 Downing St, create people and objects (in the lighter sense I have become a the God- the Brahman). My Dream is real but the events in the dream are imaginary. I create a dream and I enter into it either as an actor or as a witness. Dream is related to what I know; the world as experienced by me is required for all dream transactions. Within the dream I am not a creator; I am either an actor or a witness. In the dream, who am I is a function of where I want to associate myself with. The creator, the witness and the dreamer are one and the same and all are happy to perform the roles associated.

Summing up the two attributes of my dream are:

a) Entire dream and events, everything happens within me/inside me – “nija anthargatham” and

b) The whole thing is Externally Projected.“Bahir-Iva-Udbhuutam”

So, my Svapna nagaram, the dream world is one thing and the entire dream world is resting/residing in Me the waker; to be precise in my mind, in my mind it is resting, but since the mind is an integral part of the waker, I will use the expression, waker. So the mirror of the first example is comparable to the waker and the images/reflections of the first example is comparable to the स्वप्न प्रपछः svapna prapachaḥ the dream world.

1. Here I-the-waker, am the adhiṣṭānam, support, the basis for the entire dream world. The dream time; the dream space; As long as I support through sleep, the dream world continues, the moment the I the waker withdraws the support, the dream word collapses.

2. I-the waker, lend existence to svapna nagari, which means without me, dream world cannot exist, whereas without the dream world, I can, Thank God, I happily exist.

3. Whatever events happen in the dream world, has nothing to do with waker. In this particular dream case, the waker that is me, did not have a work permit, a visa and even a passport. I reached the airport in no time, flew to London in no time, everything was done with no time and space constraints at all.. In short, I the waker is asaṃgah, the dream event does not touch me at all.

4. The dream object and people; how many? OR whatever be their number, none of them can be counted, the only countable one is waker, and therefore, the people in dream are as good as non-existent. The Queen, the HMS Authorities, the Staff everyone are all non existent and therefore I am advayaha, I-the waker.

Here is a pictorial representation of the dream’s features

Waking up from a dream:

Let us take an example to understand the process of waking up from a dream. In a dark room, a rope is (wrongly) perceived as snake. Reacting to this snake, either one is afraid of it and tries to run away from it or one tries to catch it to earn something out of it. The game (reaction) of ‘run-and-chase’ continues as long as snake is perceived. The reason for this behaviour is our ignorance i.e. absence of the knowledge of truth. When we switch on the light, snake simply disappears and rope manifests itself without any effort on our part. Snake simply vanishes leaving no trace of itself. Snake was superimposed on Rope. Wrong perception made it look real. Snake ‘veiled’ the rope. Snake was real only until darkness prevailed. Now let us get back to the dream!

  • The dream world is inside me and it is unreal (mithya) but the dream world appears to be outside me, and real, when I am asleep (nidrāḥ). In other words, sleep (nidrāḥ) makes the inside-dream-world, outside and not only that,it makes the unreal-dream-world look as though real. To put it in a technical manner, my sleep state is not aware of my Waker nature which essentially means that Waker-ignorance is sleep (nidrāḥ). More technically, waker is adhiṣṭānam and therefore adhiṣṭāna-ignorance is nidrāḥ. Or still more technically, Waker-aadhiṣṭāna ajnānam eva nidra iti ucyate. When I am asleep, when I have adhiṣṭāna-ajnanam, the inside-dream appears outside and false-dream appears real.
  • When sleep (nidrāḥ) goes away i.e., at prabodha samaya (prabhoda is waking, samaya means at that time) I am aware of my waker status. So waking up is nothing but waker-knowledge. Prabhodha is nothing but adhiṣṭāna jnānam. And when I am aware of myself as the waker, when I have adhiṣṭāna jnānam, the outside dream is no more outside, and, the real dream is no more real; it is falsified.

In the same way, this world is experienced as separate object due to veiling power of māyā. Once this veil, the root cause of ignorance is removed, Self, the Brahman, shines by itself. This world is true only until the truth is veiled. The world talked here is better understood if we take it as ‘mental world’ or ‘Jīva shṛṣṭi’.

With the two examples of Mirror & Dream in these two introductory blogs,let us digest these learnings and proceed to the Sloka in the next blog.

…………

To be continued in next week.

Madhuvanti Malligai – மதுவந்தி மல்லிகை – A Nectar with Fragrance

When a flower predominantly grown in South of India and a Hindustani Classical Raga of the North India merges, you get nothing but pure Nectar (madhu).

No wonder, I saw these Jasmine flower plants in the apartment of a Delhi based “Madarasi” (a typical name given to people from South India living in North India), now settled in Bangalore. Being a very close relative of mine, I didn’t waste much time to pull out my iPhone, open the Camera and iTunes.

Music Courtesy: Pandit Hariprasad Chaurasia