In all the Sanatana Dharma śāstrās, it is stated that God/Brahman/Ishwar/Paramatma known as the Ultimate Reality is the one and only cause of the universe. He is the Creator, the Maintainer and the Destroyer.
அகர முதல எழுத்தெல்லாம்
ஆதிபகவன் முதற்றே உலகு:
அவனின்றி ஓர் அணுவும் அசையாது.
Who is this Ultimate Reality? யார் அந்த “அவன் – ஆதி பகவன் ”?
Mundaka Upanishad defines this Ultimate Reality as
यत्तदद्रेश्यमग्राह्यमगोत्रमवर्णंमचक्षुःश्रोत्रं तदपाणिपादम् |
नित्यं विभुं सर्वगतं सुसूक्ष्मं तदव्ययं यद्भूतयोनिं परिपश्यन्ति धीराः || 1.1.6 ||
That which is invisible, inconceivable, without lineage, without any classifications (Varṇa), without eyes and ears, without hands and feet, and that which is eternal, all-pervasive, omnipresent, extremely subtle and undecaying” – that is what the wise behold as the source of all beings.
This essence is the first Sloka of Isavasya Upanishad too (isavasyam idam sarvam). You can get the details of the same at https://soundar53.substack.com/p/isavasya-upanisad-sloka-1-46e
Adi Sankaracharya says:
That omniscient and omnipotent source must be Brahman from which occur the birth, continuance and dissolution of this universe that is manifested through name and form, that is associated with diverse agents and experiences, that provides the support for actions and results, having well-regulated space, time and causation, and that deifies all thoughts about the real nature of its creation. (Brahma Sutra, I. 1 2)
Sanatana Dharma is perhaps the only one which gives such a clear perspective of this concept without calling any single individual as God.
The Basic requirements for Creation :
Let us try and understand some basic concepts in creation. The requirements for creation are as under:
1. The efficient cause (Nimitta Kaaran) whose activity makes something and whose inactivity does not make anything.
2. The material cause (Sadharan Kaaran) or the ‘raw material’ without which nothing can be made – Prakriti or Nature
3. The common cause (Upadan Kaaran) or the accessories helping in creation.
Efficient cause can be further divided into two:
a. Major efficient cause or the engineer or the master architect who creates, manages and destroys – Ishwar
b. Minor efficient cause or the user of the creation – Souls. Without it, the creation is purposeless.
Material cause or Nature is inert non-living and hence incapable of being organized or disorganized itself in a planned manner. It needs an organizer or efficient cause for that.
Common cause includes the time and space.
This is true for any creation that happens in world – by Ishwar or by us.
Now, the next logical question that may arise in one’s mind is “How can this universe and physical beings come out from such an entity that is beyond physical attributes”?
The web that answers:
For this we should watch two interesting videos (one by Mr. David Attenborough).
We will see what these amazing videos convey w.r.t our subject – the creator in our next blog