Dakshinamurthy Sthothram – Sloka 3 – Part 3 – thou art that – तत् त्वम् असि

Tat Tvam Asi – Painting by Dhruv

From the previous blogs we understood the concepts behind the word Existence and Light viz., “Being & Knowing” – The Tat and the Tvam parts; the Paramatma and Jivatma. We saw with examples of an existing Table and analysis that both are two kinds of emptiness. We can say that there are two kinds of emptiness; one called being and the other called knowing. What is the difference between the substance of vibration (being) and the substance of knowing? Where is the line between these two emptiness.

Initially, we may think that the line between the two emptiness is just outside us. As we contemplate and meditate with the help of a Guru, we will experience that there is no dividing line: It is not there. This is the great discovery of the nondual (advaita) understanding. The reality i.e, the emptiness of the knowledge of pure consciousness (I) called time and the reality of emptiness of the matter as the substance of vibration (you the object) called as space are empty and identical. These are two different shades of water colors on the same paper (like the two parts of the faces in the art work done by my 8 year old grandson in the image shown above). This is an experiential recognition as we meditate on the subject. This is called the Jivatma-Paramatma Aikyam.

So jīvātma is pure Consciousness, paramātma is pure Existence. Then vedāntaḥ says this pure Existence which lends existence to the world, this pure Consciousness which lends consciousness to the body, both this pure Existence and pure Consciousness are one and the same. So, Existence is Consciousness; Consciousness is Existence. And it is this Existence-Consciousness which makes the body sentient; and which makes the world existent. And this recognition of the oneness of the existence and consciousness is jīvātma paramātma êkya jnānam, and Śankarācārya says, whichever Guru manages to successfully communicate, this identity of this pure Existence and Pure consciousness, to that Guru, who is Dakṣiṇāmurty., My namaskarams. This is going to be the essence of this third Sloka which we will see in the next blog.

Here are the pictorial representations of our learning on Sat & Cit (Existence and Consciouness) (Courtesy: vedantastudents.com)

Dakshinamurthy Stothram- Sloka 3 – Part 2 – Light – Chaitanyam- त्वम्


In the previous blog we saw that there are two ways of perceiving an object like the example of the table. “ I see it and therefore the table exists” and “the table exists and therefore I see it”. According to Adi Sankaracharya’ Advaita philosophy, knowledge of the world is knowledge of the thoughts of the objects of the world, or viṣayākāravṛittijñana. When knowledge is thus based on the modification of the mind, the objects will definitely be external to you. The knowledge of the world, being viṣayākāra vṛitti, is therefore obtained through the senses. Therefore He also advocates that yad-dṛśyam tat naśyam—that which is perceivable is perishable. I was reminded by my “Twitter Friends” of a wonderful Tamil proverbs that reflect this: விண்டவர் கண்டிலார்….கண்டவர் விண்டிலார்; கண்ணால் காண்பதும் பொய் காதால் கேட்பதும் பொய் தீர விசாரிப்பதே மெய்

Nevertheless we also understood that we need both “Existence” and “Light” for our knowledge of the objects and hence the world.


From the scientific perspective, we know that light is an energy radiation. No single answer to the question “What is light?” satisfies the many contexts in which light is experienced, explored, and exploited. The physicist is interested in the physical properties of light, the artist in an aesthetic appreciation of the visual world. Through the sense of sight, light is a primary tool for perceiving the world and communicating within it. Light from the Sun warms the Earth, drives global weather patterns, and initiates the life-sustaining process of photosynthesis. On the grandest scale, light’s interactions with matter have helped shape the structure of the Universe.

Vedantic Treatise on Light

Imagine a situation where you are just entering a room and the light goes off. Do you need light to identify the objects in the room? Yes, surely. Remember you are an object too. Do you need light to identify yourselves? No. Why?

When we discuss this topic, one important Eka Sloki (Single Sloka) of Adi Śankarā is to be understood. Adi Śankarā answers these two questions by a single sloka. The Sloka is presented as a dialogue between a teacher (Guru) and student (Sishya), in response to a question by the student on realization of self. The Sloka, its Tamil & English Translations are given below:

Guru: How do you see (What is that light/power which helps you see?) Sishya: I see with the help of sunlight

Guru: How do you see in the night? Sishya: I see with the help of a lamp

Guru: Let that be so. How do you see the light? Sishya: With my eyes.

Guru: How do you see when tour eyes are closed ? Sishya: It is with my intellect

Guru: What helps you see (know) that intellect? Sishya: This is me (me as pure consciousness)

Guru: (Indeed) You are that supreme light Sishya: I realize that I am (immediate experience for the disciple)

So, the following facts about the “Light” have to be understood:

1. “Light” is not a part, product or property of the object

2. “Light” is formless

3. “Light” is independent, enlivens the object and makes it sentient.

4. “Light” is beyond the object and is “Sarvaghataha”.

5. “Light” will be there even after the object is destroyed. Once object goes, “Light” is not recognizable as the recognizing medium is gone

Light is Cit, the Chaitanyam

Let us go back to the previous blog where we saw that an object in the ultimate analysis of matter, either through the inward looking Vedantic route or through the outward looking scientific route (as explained in the blogs that covered Sloka 2 on Creation) is nothing but emptiness which takes the shape of vibrations and comes into existence. If this vibration is not known then we will not know that it “is”. So there is also this knowing. To visualise this knowing we add a spatial reference to it. If we further contemplate on this existence of this vibration suspended as it were in the “knowing” spatial field, we learn that this spatial knowing field is also empty of objects. This is the second kind of emptiness: the emptiness of pure consciousness. This emptiness is “cit” चित् (chaitanyam) is pure (independent from body & mind) and is the Jivātma, the Self-awareness त्वम् (Tvam) and at the worldly level is known as visibility (bhaati भाति)

We saw “sat” Existence earlier. We now saw “cit” Light. In either of these two studies, there is a basic question that is not addressed yet and needs to be looked into. That question is “How have existence and light come to be conjoined with all existing things?”.

The answer to this question will come up in the next blog.

Dakshinamurthy Sthothram- Sloka 3 – Part 1 – Existence – तत् – A Vedantic perspective

This IS a Table


Look at the image above.

1. What is that ? That is a table. That table exists in that room.

2. How do we know that ? We know because we EXPERIENCE the table. Please note that a non existent table cannot be experienced by us. So the “IS” statement about the table is endowed with Existence which is proved by our experience.

3. How do we experience the table? By seeing.

4. How do we see ? We see through our eyes.

5. What happens when you see? Here are two possible explanations:

1. There exists a table and there is light available for us to see the table. The light is the manifest and the table is the manifesting medium for the light. Note that when the manifest, the light is removed, the table does not appear to exist. When we remove the table, the surviving light is not re-cognised, not because of its absence, but because of the lack of a manifesting medium. So, for an object to manifest, we need two basic inputs. The existence and light. when light rays fall on retina, light rays are carried via optical fibres and the image is projected on cerebral cortex. An inverted image is formed; this can be termed as sensation. Brain then tries to understand the image with the information it already has and tries to interpret the image by giving a meaningful suggestion. Here the suggestion given is ‘this is a table’. So, a sensation and a meaningful suggestion (together called as perception) defines that object called Table. This is one perspective.

2. Our shāshtra-s explain this in a slightly different way. Our shāshtras say, that mind travels through senses up to the object, touches it, feels it and then gives meaningful suggestion. The explanation is based on mental level.With this in mind, when mind senses anything via five senses, it immediately tries to find a meaningful explanation and tries to arrive at conclusion. When the object is not clearly perceived or seen, mind tries to correlate it with the nearest object that is stored in mind. Mind keeps imagining until it reaches an acceptable conclusion. It superimposes the nearest image on the unclear object. This is the second perspective.

Whichever perspective is followed, one thing is very clear and common to both viz., we need light and an existence to categorically say that an object exists.

Let us understand Existence first

Features of Existence

Existence is a mystery for philosophers; And vedāntaḥ has got a unique perception regarding the nature of existence.

Adi Sankara makes it clear that Existence of a sentient object (table in our example, a pot, a rope or the World) is nijaanthargatham. Remember the first Sloka (Viswam Darpana …). It has its being only in this atman alone. So when you see an object, the object consciousness is atma. An object (pot, chair, world etc) cannot reveal itself to me unless the object consciousness is present. So when I say table , it means the table consciousness is. This ISness is the satta, the sat Atma. The true Atma. This “IS” is different from the normal “is” which we always associate with time. When we say an object exists, the existence in our buddhi is in respect of time. Whereas in the case of ISness, the Consciousness IS (consciousness Existence) is fixed and objects are the variables (pot, chair, world etc). These variables does not exist in the absence of my consciousness Existence.

This consciousness Existence is presented by vedāntaḥ with features, which are exactly like the description of consciousness. Let us see them now:

1. An object exists because I experience its Existence. Hence Existence is not a part, a product or property of the world of objects. When I say the table is, the “IS”ness is not the property of the table. IS not part of the table. It is not even a product of the table. But it is something experienced by me; because I say it IS the table.

2. Existence is an independent reality. Existence pervades and makes every object existent.

3. Existence is not limited by the boundaries of the object. When you say table IS, vedāntaḥ says ISness is not only in the table, it extends beyond the table. It is all pervading sarvagatam; this is the third.

4. Existence exists even after the destruction of the objects which it enlivens; Which means what? ISness will continue to exist, even after the Table is destroyed. Table goes. ISness of the Table does not go. Existence is eternal nityam.

Existence is Sat ; Existence is Tat

Therefore, “IS”ness is not a property of any one particular object; all objects share this in common. It has no objective definable qualities. This is the first kind of emptiness as we meditate on isness. This emptiness takes the shape of vibrations and comes as “existence” within the time and space domain. Contemporary physics confirms this if you look into the nature of matter i.e., when we explore matter right upto sub atomic particles and below, right to the end (remember the introduction to the second Sloka where we started with the God Particle experiment).

Now the question is: how can I appreciate the pure existence and consciousness without association with any object or body ? I am able to appreciate them along with object and body. I am able to appreciate existence with object; I am able to appreciate
consciousness with body. Once the object is removed, and the body is removed; pure formless existence consciousness survives, the sāstras say. How can I appreciate that pure existence consciousness?

The sāstra says: you will never be able to appreciate the existence-consciousness. Once you remove the world and body, you will never be able to appreciate, because your appreciation is invariably along with an object or body. Pure thing; you can never appreciate; You know what is the reason; the Upanisad says, it is because you yourselves are that pure existence-consciousness, it being the very subject itself, it is never available for objectification.

In vedantic parlance this is called “sat” – the self Existence feature of Paramatma (Brahman) or तत् (Tat) and at the worldy level is known as “asti” अस्ति – Existence.

This sustaining factor of cognition, the Satta, the ISness, that satta is responsible for everything that exists in space and time. Therefore the senses and the cognition and the objects of cognition all of them have their being in Consciousness which is self existent. Why is it self existent? Consciousness is self revealing and therefore self evident and what is self evident means self existent; means that it IS. Consciousness is self revealing or the revealer. Like sun is the revealer for objects. It does not do any action to reveal. Its by nature a revealer. It reamins revealing all the time.

This leads us to the second vital link – the revealing aspect – The light.

In a lighter vein “We will not take the Light lightly”. We will throw more light on this “Light” in our next blog.

Dakshinamurthy Sthothram – Sloka 2 – அண்டமும் ஆண்டவனும் – The Universe & the Lord

Dakshinamurthy Sloka No 2

बीजस्याऽन्तरिवाङ्कुरो जगदिदं प्राङ्गनिर्विकल्पं पुनः

मायाकल्पितदेशकालकलना वैचित्र्यचित्रीकृतम्

मायावीव विजृम्भयत्यपि महायोगीव यः स्वेच्छया

तस्मै श्रीगुरुमूर्तये नम इदं श्रीदक्षिणामूर्तये ॥२॥

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு

சிறுவித்தினில் அடங்கும் வருபெருந்தரு ஒப்ப,  இவ்வுலகை – தன்

இச்சையுடன் மந்திரச்சித்தனும் வித்தக ஞானியும் போல் விரித்து – பின்

இலை கிளை கொடி மலர் காய் கனி வித்தென கணக்கிலா வகையுடன்

வெளி நொடி வரையிலா மாயையால் வேறுபட க் காட்டி பின் மறைத்திடும்

ஆதிஅந்தமிலா மோனநிலை ஆசானாம் அருள்மிகு

தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி  பொற்பாதம் பணிந்திடுவோம்

Meaning in English:

To Him who, like unto a magician, or even like unto a mighty Yogin, displays by His own will this universe, undifferentiated in the beginning like the plant within the seed, but made afterwards picturesque in all its variety in combination with space and time created by Mâyâ, to Him who is incarnate in the Teacher, to Him in the Effulgent Form Facing the South, to Him (Siva) be this bow!

Background Information

In the first Sloka, we dealt with the nature of the Ultimate Reality/ the Supreme Self/the Brahman/God by analysing two states of the Individual Self/Consciousness viz., dream and awake states. In other words, by analysing the dreaming jīvātma and waking jīvātma we learnt about our jīvātma svarūpam. Therefore, first verse is dealing with an important word “tvam”. And now in the second verse, Śankarācārya wants to deal with the word “tat” – tat padārthaḥ, the meaning of the word: tat, i.e., paramātma or Brahman. We saw in the previous blogs, that in all the śāstrās, it is stated that Brahman is the cause of the universe; using the spider as an example, we saw that Brahman is the intelligent and material cause for the universe. We will see now how he “creates” the universe.

Is it Creation or Manifestation?

Śankarācārya brings forth the philosophy that Creation is not there; everything is in potential form. Brahman is the material and intelligent cause to bring it out as His manifestation. This is the core Vedanta Principle that Śankarācārya brings out by citing two examples which we saw in the two videos of the previous blog; the giant Sequoia tree and PC Sorcar, the magician.

The Tree and the Material Cause:

And where did this big tree come from? From a very small seed. This is the example that Śankarācārya brings out in Sloka 2 – The seed and tree; He says; the tree is already existent in the seed, before its origination; in dormant condition; potential condition. He uses the expression “nirvikalpa rūpeṇa”; in an undifferentiated form, the tree exists. And why do you use the word undifferentiated? Because in the seed, even though the tree exists, you will not be able to see where the flowers are, which are the branches etc.; the branches, thousands of leaves etc. are going to come; they are all there in the seed.

இதையே அவ்வைப் பாட்டி ‘வெற்றிவேர்க்கையில் ’ குறிப்பிடுகிறார்.

“தெள்ளிய ஆலின் சிறுபழத் தொரு விதை

தெண்ணீர்க் கயத்துச் சிறுமீன் சினையினும்

நுண்ணிதே யாயினும் அண்ணல் யானை

அணிதேர் புரவி ஆட்பெரும் படையொடு

மன்னக் கிருக்க நிழலாகும்மே’’

சிறுமீனின் கண்ணைகாட்டிலும் சிறிய முட்டையில் அரசன் தன் நாற்படை பரிவாரங்களுடன் வந்து தங்க நிழல் தரும் பெரிய ஆலமரம் உள்ளது’ என்பது (தெள்ளிய ஆலின் ) தமிழ்ப்பாட்டியின் வாக்கு. இந்தச் சிறிய விதைக்குள் தன்னைப் பிற மரங்களிலிருந்து வேறுபடுத்திக் கொள்ளாமலும் வேர், கிளை கொப்பு விழுதுகள் போன்ற உறுப்புகள் காணப்படாமலும் சத்தியாக ஆலமரம் மறைந்துள்ளது. இதனை வடமொழியில் ‘நிர்விகல்ப ரூபம்’, அவ்வியக்தம் (un manifested, undifferentiated form ) என்பர். அதாவது, காணப்படும் பிரபஞ்சம் தோன்றுவதற்கு முன் அது ‘ஜகத் காரணமாக’ சூக்கும சத்தியாகப் பிரமத்தில் இருந்தது. அதனால் பிரமம் பிரபஞ்சத்திற்கு வித்து. எனவே, இவ்வுலகம் பிரமத்தினால் படைக்கப்பட்டதன்று. பிரபஞ்சம் படைக்கப்பட்ட தன்று. ஏற்கெனவே உள்ளது. ஏற்கெனவே உள்ள சூக்குமப் பிரபஞ்சம் நம்முடைய கண்ணுக்குக் காட்சிப் படவில்லை. எனவே காட்சிப்பட்ட பிரபஞ்சத்தினை இறைவன் படைப்பு எனக் கருதுகிறோம். பிரமமே முதற்காரணம்.

The world was there in potential form, in Brahman, the kāraṇam, material cause. And therefore Śankarācārya says; बीजस्याऽन्तरिवाङ्कुरो जगदिदं प्राङ्गनिर्विकल्पं Bijasya antha nirvikalpaha ankura asthi. Within the seed, ankuraha, the tree is there; nirvikalpaha, in an undifferentiated, unrecognizable form (unmanifest, undifferentiated, potential form); In the same way, the whole universe, existed in potential form; in whom? Brahmani, the world was existing in Brahman in potential form; therefore, Brahman is the seed of the universe. Bhagavan did not create this world; why? because the world was already there; He didn’t. It was already available inside Him in undifferentiated form.

Now let us come to the second line. मायाकल्पितदेशकालकलना वैचित्र्यचित्रीकृतम् – māyā kalpita deśa kāla kalanā vai citri citrikritam. That unmanifest world was made manifest. The undifferentiated world got differentiated. – citrikritam made to manifest, magnified, multiplied or differentiated. Just as from the undifferentiated seed, gradually differentiation comes; this sprout comes; then you can see the branches, the leaves, the twig, flowers, the fruit, they are all differentiation from the past condition where these differences were not there. And therefore, creation can be called a manifestation or a differentiation or a form of multiplication. Thus, citrikritam means it was diversified, magnified; multiplied.

And for this multiplication of one into the manifold world, what is required. Śankarācārya gives in a very technical form and says māya kalptita deśa kāla. Desa and kāla (space and time), are caused by the māya shakthi (veiling and projecting powers) which is in Brahman. Thus, when I look at through time and space, Ekam Brahma is perceived as anekam jagat. Now what is essence of this entire line? Brahman continues to be non-dual; when māyā shakthi is activated, called vikshepa shakthi, then the time and space comes into existence; and they are the goggles for the consciousness. When I look through the time space spectacle, a non-dual Brahman appears, or is modified into the pluralistic universe. And from the line, what is the main point we get. Brahman is the material cause of the universe.

The Magician, the Yogi and the Intelligent Cause:

Now in the third line, Śankarācārya wants to point out, that the Brahman itself is the intelligent cause also, which throws out the universe out of itself. Not only is the material cause, which becomes the universe, He is the intelligent cause also; which throws out the universe out of itself. And what is the example? svapna prapancha, I am the material cause of the dream world, and I myself am the intelligent cause also, who throw out the svapna world, out of myself. That is said here; yahaḥ vrijrimbayati. yahaḥ means the very same Brahman, the paramātma yahaḥ vrijrimbayati api विजृम्भयत्यपि; not only he is the material cause, he is the intelligent cause also. That अर्प api indicates he is creator also. He is the raw material also. vrijrimbayati api; Very same Brahman creates also. And for creating the world out of itself, what are the instruments used by Brahman. Because we require the creator, the raw material, then the instruments also. Carpenter is the creator, wood is the raw material, but those two are not sufficient, he requires the instrument; What are the instruments used by Brahman? Śankarācārya says Brahman is the instrument also. And therefore स्वेच्छया sveccayāḥ. By mere sankalpa, without requiring any instrument, swa icchayāḥ, sva saṃkalpa mātreṇa. And this is also not impossible, because we do the same thing in creating the swapna; I am the creator, I am the raw material, I am the instrument also; and saṃkalpa mātreṇa, effortlessly I throw out this svapna prapanchaḥ; Similarly, Brahman throws out the jagat prapanchaḥ.

And he gives two examples here. Even though svapna example is the ideal example, Śankarācārya does not give that example here, because in the first verse already svapna driṣṭanta he has given and therefore he gives two other examples. What are they? मायावीव māyāvi iva. Like a magician. So, Magician produces many things out of himself; he just waves the hand and you find a hat is there; or there is a dress; or there is a bird; he shows a empty hat, then from that he goes on taking many things; So what is the raw material? Without any raw material, with his own magical power, the magician materialises and we are all magicians in producing the dream world and Brahman is a magician in producing this world. He materialises like the magician. Or महायोगीव mahā yogi iva. Or like a great sidda puruṣaḥ, who can also materializes things. Visvāmitra materialised a world itself called triśanku svargaḥ, and we also read in the books of various sidda puruṣaḥ s, who materialise things. And Śankarācārya gives māyavi iva, mahayogi iva. A siddha puruṣaḥ can also materialise; a magician also can materialise. Thus Brahman is the Intelligent Cause.

Why “Create” at all ?

Adi Śankarāchayra answers one more question, which is often asked; How did this world come into being? Or why did Bhagavan create the world at all? Because he is a jnāni; he does not require anything to be happy. We are ajnānis, unhappy and therefore go on producing things, seeking happiness. But Paramātma need not seek happiness, by creating a world. He must be ātman eva ātmanā tuṣṭhāḥ. He cannot create anything out of desire; then why did bhagavan create the world, if he does not have a desire? This is one question we get often especially when problem comes.

And generally, śāstra gives the answer; the world has to be created, because we have invested in this world; invested in the form of karmas. We have got lot of karmās to be exhausted. Since we have got lot of punya pāpa karmās and the karmās have to be exhausted, and the exhaustion can take place only through experiences, and the experiences require a world.

How did we all get this karmā? Very simple. Because in the previous janma, previous shristhi, we have done lot of good and bad karmās. Some of the karmās got exhausted in the previous sṛśṣṭi; but some reminders were there; for that this sṛśṣṭi. Therefore, how did we get the karmā? Because of the previous sṛśṣṭi. This goes on and on and Adi Śankarācārya answers that question through one single word: bījasyāntati vāṅkuro jagaditaṃ prāṅnarvikalpaṃ punaḥ. That punaḥ, answers the questions. punaḥ means repeatedly, means again and again and again. Adi Shankaracharya puts one punaha; punaha indicates the cyclic nature of the creation;

Thus with two examples and three lines in Sanskrit, Adi Sankaracharya brings out the entire Vedantic Concepts about Brahman, the Creator. Amazing

Carnatic Musing 39 – MAANASA GURU GUHA – Ananda Bhairavi


Muthuswamy Dikshithar. Pl ref http://musicinfoguide.blogspot.com/2007/08/muthuswami-dikshitar-1775-1835.html

Audio Link

Listen to the evergreen voice of the one and only one MD Ramanathan. Ananda Bhairavi smoothly flows with all its curls and swirls effortlessly. https://www.dropbox.com/s/89bhl91awc7oe35/M.D%20Ramanathan-AIR-ManasaGuruguha-Anandabhairavi-IkvKJgY1gsA%281%29.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Verses


मानस गुरु गुह रूपं भजरे रे

माया-मय हृत्तापं त्यजरे रे


मानव जन्मनि संप्राप्ते सति

परमात्मनि निरतिशय सुखं व्रजरे रे


सत्व गुणोपाधि सहित सदाशिवं

स्वाविद्या समेत जीवोद्भवम्

तत्वं तामस युत विश्व वैभवं

तारकेश्वरं आनन्द भैरवम्

(मध्यम काल साहित्यम्)

नत्वा श्री गुरु चरणं कृत्वा नाम स्मरणं

जित्वा मोहावरणं मत्वा त्वदेक शरणम्

Meaning in Tamil


போற்றிடுவாய் மனமே குருகுகன் வடிவம்தனையே

அகற்றிடுவாய் மாயைவிளை இதய நோவதனையே


அரிய மானிடப் பிறவியெடுத்த நீ,

அடைந்திடு நாடி இறையருட் பேரின்பம்தனை


சத்வகுணப்பண்பின் வடிவான சதாசிவன் அவன்

அகஇருள் விளை உயிரின உருவகமூலம் அவன்

இருள்நிறை இவ்வண்டம் கடந்த பேரொளி அவன்

காக்கும் கடவுளாம் ஆனந்த பைரவன் அவன்

மத்தியம கால சாகித்யம்

குருகுகனின் பாதம் பணிந்து நாமம் துதித்து

இருள் மாயத்திரையகற்றி அடைக்கலம் அவன்

ஒருவனே என நினைந்து ….போற்றிடுவாய் மனமே

English Transliteration


mānasa guru guha rūpaṃ bhajarē rē

māyā-maya hṛttāpaṃ tyajarē rē


mānava janmani saṃprāptē sati

paramātmani niratiśaya sukhaṃ vrajarē rē


satva guṇōpādhi sahita sadāśivaṃ

svāvidyā samēta jīvōdbhavam

tatvaṃ tāmasa yuta viśva vaibhavaṃ

tārakēśvaraṃ ānanda bhairavam

(madhyama kāla sāhitya)

natvā śrī guru caraṇaṃ kṛtvā nāma smaraṇaṃ

jitvā mōhāvaraṇaṃ matvā tvadēka śaraṇam

Meaning in English

Oh mind, worship the form of Guruguhan. Give up the agony of the heart caused by illusion.When human birth has been obtained, attain the perfect unsurpassed bliss of the Supreme Being ( don’t waste the opportunity) He is SADASIVA, full of SATVAGUNA;All living beings are born out of Him as the result of the impact of AVIDYA. The universe with its TAMASIC qualities is again a manifestation of His greatness; He is TARAKESVARA and ANANDA BHAIRAVA. Prostrate on His feet ; Mediate on His name; Conquer the veil of illusion and Think of Him as your sole refuge.

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words


मानस – mind

गुरु गुह – Guru Guha – Lord Subramanya (also pen name of Dikshithar)

रूपं – form

भजरे – worship

माया-मय -illusion

ह्र्त् – heart

तापम् – agony

त्यजरे – give up


मानव – human

जन्मनि – birth

संप्राप्ते – gained/obtained/attained

सति –

परमात्मनि – Supreme Being

निरतिशय – unsurpassed/ perfect

सुखं – bliss/pleasure



सत्व – good qualities – Saatvic

गुण – virtues/traits

उपाधि – attribute

सहित – together

सदाशिवं – Sadasiva

स्व – self

अविद्या – ignorance / illusion

समॆत – along with

जीव – vital/life

उद्भवम् – creation

तत्वं – reality/truth

तामस – Dark qualities

युत – combined

विश्व – universe

वैभवं – ceremony

तारक – rescue/save

ईश्वरं – Supreme Being

आनन्द – delight/happy

भैरवम् – Bhairava

(मध्यम काल साहित्यम्)

नत्वा – bow down ( from the word nata)

श्री गुरु – Revered Teacher

चरणं – foot

कृत्वा – having done

नाम – name

स्मरणं – mental recitation

जित्वा – overcoming

मोह – delusion

आवरणं – cover

मत्वा – think (derived from the word mati)

त्वद् – your

ऎक – only

शरणम् – refuge

Hit the Bed & grab “The Comforter”

“OMG ! What a hectic day ! I need to relax !

This is how most of us feel as we hit the bed at night after a long working day.

There is a very nice way to relax immediately.

Play this song. Close your eyes. Look at no one else except yourselves and recollect the meaning of this verse.

Video Link

In this Verse, if you desire, substitute Mahadeva/Siva with the God of your choice. If you don’t believe in God, substitute it with whatever rationale your “SELF” wants. The core is to contemplate and own the responsibility for your actions or otherwise.

You, for sure will chill out immediately and off you sleep peacefully ! I do it everyday.

Remember- There are no rights and wrongs; there are only consequences and there is only one TRUTH. Crisis of Contrition in us is the path for progress.

Dakshinamurthy Sthothram – Sloka 1 – Conclusion

Adi Sankarar, Manicka Vasagar, Thirumoolar

Essentially the first Sloka of the Dakṣiṇāmūrti Sthothram deals with “atma svaroopam” which Adi Sankaracharya reveals with two day to day examples of “darpana nagari” and “svapna nagari”. The Atma is revealed as the base “adishtaanam” of the Universe, as the independent existence – truth “sathya”, as the one unaffected by the events and whatever happens “asamgaha” and finally as non dual “advayam”, the Brahman Himself.

In this first verse, from the experiential standpoint we discover that the world exists in our mind. The world exists because we experience it. Usually we think the other way around. The conventional perspective is world exists therefore we experience it. This is called srishti drishti vada . (Srushti means creation. Drishti means seeing. Vada means doctrine or teaching). It means, you see the world because it has been created. In the ongoing “Global Festival of Oneness 2021” conducted by Advaita Academy, there was an interesting presentation on this. This is how this debate on the two perspective was summed up pictorially by the speaker.

But the presentation by Sankara in this first verse is opposite to the conventional view. The creation exists because you see it. The world in the mind exists because you are there to experience it. If you are not there to witness the world, the world in your mind would not exist. What you directly experience is only the contents of your mind. So the vision conveyed by the first verse is drishti srishti vada. It is opposite to the conventional perspective.

ஆதி சங்கரரின் தக்ஷிணா மூர்தி ஸ்தோத்திரத்தின் முதல் பண்ணின் கருத்துக்கள் சைவ சித்தாந்தத்தில் வெளிப்படுகிறது. திருமூலர் திருமந்திரத்தில் சொல்கிறார்:

மனத்தில் எழுந்ததுஓர் மாயக் கண்ணாடி;

நினைப்பின் அதனின் நிழலையும் காணார்;

வினைப்பயன் போக விளக்கியும் கொள்ளார்;

புறக்கடை இச்சித்துப் போகின்ற வாறே (திருமந்திரம், 1681)

தன்னை அறியக் கிளம்பியவர்கள் தன்னுடைய மூலை முடுக்குகளிலெல்லாம் தன்னைத் தேடினார்கள்; மனம் எதிர்ப்பட்டது; அங்கும் தேடினார்கள்; அது ஒரு மாயப் பிம்பத்தை எழுப்பிக் காட்டியது. அடிமுடி தேடிய படலத்தில், முடி தேடிப் போன பிரம்மன், முடியைக் காணாமல் அன்னப் பறவையைக் கண்டு திரும்பிவிட்டதைப்போல, தன்னையே தேடிப் போனவர்கள், தன்னைக் காணாமல் ஏதோ ஒரு மாயப் பிம்பத்தைக் கண்டு அதுவே தான் என்று எண்ணித் திரும்பி விட்டார்கள். விளங்காதவர்கள்; விளக்கிச் சொன்னாலும் விளங்கிக் கொள்ளத் தெரியாதவர்கள். தலைவாயில் அடைத்திருப்பதாக எண்ணி ஏமாந்து பின்னால் சென்று புறக்கடை வாசலைத் தட்டிக்கொண்டு நிற்கிறார்கள். தன்னை அல்ல, தன்னுடைய நிழலைக்கூட இவர்களால் கண்டுகொள்ள முடியாது.

Brahman is in essence the indwelling Controller for all activity seen in any being whatsoever. That is why Bhagwan Ramana Maharishi says that stop unwanted discussions/arguments about the real or unreal world and objects. Start looking inwards in his “Ulladhu Naarpadhu” – உள்ளது நாற்பது.

உலகுமெய்பொய்த் தோற்ற முலகறிவா மன்றென்

றுலகுசுக மன்றென் றுரைத்தெ — னுலகுவிட்டுத்

தன்னையோர்ந் தொன்றிரண்டு தானற்று நானற்ற

வந்நிலையெல் லார்க்குமொப் பாம்.

What is the use of disputing: ‘The world is real’, ‘[No, it is] an unreal appearance’; ‘The world is sentient’, ‘It is not’; ‘The world is happiness’, ‘It is not’? Leaving [all thought about] the world and investigating [or knowing] oneself, [thereby] putting an end to [all disputes about] one and two [non-duality and duality], that state in which ‘I’ [ego] has [thereby] perished is agreeable to all. So instead of looking outward, start looking inward.

இதனையே திருமூலர் திருமந்திரம், 2956 பதியில்;

மனமாயை மாயை;இம் மாயை மயக்க;

மனமாயை தான்மாயமற்றொன்றும் இல்லை;

பினைமாய்வது இல்லைபிதற்றவும் வேண்டா;

தனைஆய்ந்து இருப்பது தத்துவம் தானே.

என தெளிவாக உரைக்கிறார். உங்களைப் பேதைமைப்படுத்துவதும் மயக்குவதும் நீங்களே உருவாக்கிச் செல்லங் கொஞ்சிப் பேணி வளர்த்து வைத்திருக்கிற மனம்தான். மனம் உங்களை மயக்குவதை நிறுத்துங்கள்; மனத்தை நீங்கள் மயக்குங்கள். மனம் என்கிற மாயை ஒழிந்துவிட்டால், பிறகு உங்களை மயக்கத்தக்கது வேறு ஒன்றும் இல்லை. ஒழித்துக்கட்ட வேண்டியதும் வேறு ஒன்றும் இல்லை. மனத்தின் தூண்டுதலுக்கு ஆட்பட்டுத் தாறுமாறாக நடந்துகொள்ளவும் தேவையில்லை. தன்னையே தான் ஆராய்ந்து, தானே தானாக இருப்பதுதான் யோகம்.

தன்னையே தான் ஆராய்தல் எப்படி? மாணிக்கவாசகர் சொல்கிறார்:

நான்ஆர்?என் உள்ளம்ஆர்ஞானங்கள்

ஆர்? என்னை யார்அறிவார்?

வானோர் பிரான்என்னை

ஆண்டுஇலனேல் மதிமயங்கி

ஊனார் உடைதலையில்

உண்பலிதேர் அம்பலவன்

தேன்ஆர் கமலமே

சென்றுஊதாய் கோத்தும்பீ

(திருவாசகம், திருக்கோத்தும்பி, 2). நான் யார், என் உள்ளம் எது, ஞானங்கள் எவை என்று அறிய வேண்டும்; என்னை அறிகிறவர் யார் என்றும் பார்க்க வேண்டும். எல்லாமே வானோர் பிரானாகிய சிவன்தான் என்று தன்னை அறிவிக்கும் பொறுப்பையும் அறியும் பொறுப்பையும் இறைவனிடம் ஒப்படைக்கிறார் பக்தியின் வழிவந்த மாணிக்கவாசகர். யோகத்தின் வழிவந்த திருமூலரோ அந்தப் பொறுப்பைத் தன் வசமே வைத்துக்கொள்கிறார்.

So, how do we elevate ourselves to that enquiry Who am I? How can I look inward? In answer to this question, Sages have identified four areas

  1. Study of Shastras and Shruti 2. The Kripa of the Guru 3. Yoga practice (Abhyasa) through meditation 4. God’s grace/Isvara Anugraha

When, by Shruti,, by the master’s favour, by practice of Yoga, and by the Grace of God, there arises a knowledge of one’s own Self, then, as a man regards the food he has eaten as one with himself, the Adept Yogin sees the universe as one with his Self, absorbed as the universe is in the Universal Ego which he has become.


மேற்கோள் நூல்கள்

1. Dakṣiṇāmurty. Sthothram – Talks By Swami Paramarthananda; Transcribed by Sri P.S. Ramachandrn; Published by :Arsha Avinash

2. Dakshinamurti Stotra with Mānasollāsa of Sureśvarācārya translated by Alladi Mahadeva Sastri – from archives.org

3.சங்கரரின் தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி தோத்திரம்: சைவசித்தாந்த விளக்கம் – முனைவர்கோ.ந. முத்துக்குமாரசுவாமி – https://www.tamilhindu.com/

4. Prof. Mahadevan, IIM, Bangalore – https://www.sanskritfromhome.in/course/daksinamurtiSthothram /

5. https://Vedāntaḥstudents.com/class-notes/#1539832350612-778c6bda-cf96

6. தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி ஸ்தோத்திரம் – பகவான் ரமண மகரிஷி

Carnatic Musing 38 – Sringara Saktyayudha – Raga Rama Manohari


Muthuswamy Dikshithar. Pl. refer http://musicinfoguide.blogspot.com/2007/08/muthuswami-dikshitar-1775-1835.html

Audio Link

Listen to Sanjay Subramanian at https://www.dropbox.com/s/cbi8nezfgrg59dq/Sanjay%20Subrahmanyan%20-%20shrngAra%20shaktyAyudhadhara%20-%20rAmamanOhari%20-%20dIkshitar-Je9UnymFHqs.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Verse


शृङ्गार शक्त्यायुध धर शरवणस्य

दासोऽहं अनिशं धन धान्य प्रदस्य

समष्टि चरणम्

गङ्गामृत पूरित घटाभिषेकस्य

गद्य पद्यादि नुत कोमळतर पदस्य

अङ्गारकादि नव ग्रह वन्दितस्य

आदि मध्यान्त रहिताप्रमेय वरस्य

(मध्यम काल साहित्यम्)

जगदम्बिकादि सकल देवता मोहित

जननादि खेद भञ्जन चतुरतरस्य

नग राज सुता नन्दीश नव नन्दादि

भक्त जनान्तःकरणानन्द गुरु गुहस्य

variations –


Meaning in Tamil


சிங்காரவேலன் சரவணனின் அடிமை யான் எக்காலமும்

சீர்மிகு செல்வ வளம் வாரி வழங்கும் சக்தி வேலாயுதன்.. சிங்கார

சமஷ்டி சரணம்

நிரைகுட கங்கை நீர் புனித திருமுழுக்காடும்

உரைகவிபல போற்றும் கமலமலர்ப்பாதமுடை

அங்காரகன் சேர் நவகோளதிபதிகள் துதிக்கும்

ஆதி மத்ய அந்தமிலா அளவிலா மேன்மைமிகு..…. சிங்கார

அன்னை சக்தியுடன் அனத்து உம்பர்க்கும் அனந்தம் தரும்,

அல்லல்மிகு பிறவிப் பிணி தீர்க்கும் அதிவித்தகன்,

அன்னை உமையவள் மகேசனுடன்அடியார்க்கும்

நவசக்தி மைந்தருக்கும் அளவிலா இன்பமளி குருகுகன்…… சிங்கார

English Transliteration


SRngAra SaktyAyudha dhara SaravaNasya

dAsO(a)haM aniSaM dhana dhAnya pradasya

samashTi caraNam

gangAmRta pUrita ghaTAbhishEkasya

gadya padyAdi nuta kOmaLa-tara padasya

angArakAdi nava graha vanditasya

Adi madhyAnta rahitApramEya varasya

(madhyama kAla sAhityam)

jagadambikAdi sakala dEvatA mOhita –

jananAdi khEda bhanjana catura-tarasya

naga rAja sutA nandISa nava nandAdi –

bhakta janAntaHkaraNAnanda guru guhasya

variations –

nandAdi – nandyAdi

kshEtra – Sikkil Singaravelan.

Meaning in English

I am the slave forever of Lord Saravana, the handsome one holding the powerful spear as weapon and who showers wealth and grains

He is the one:

who is bathed with pitchers filled with the waters of Ganga, with very tender feet which are glorified in prose and poetry, worshipped by the nine planets led by Angaraka, with neither beginning nor middle nor end,immeasurable eminent one, who charms all the celestials beginning with Parvati(the universal mother), expert at shattering the sorrow caused by birth etc. delights the hearts of Parvati, Nandi, Nava-nandanas and other devotees. He is Guruguha


• This Kriti is in the sixth Vibhakti

• “SRngAra SaktyAyudha dhara” translates to Singaravelan in Tamil, as the lord is known in the Sikkal temple

• The Nava-Nandanas or Nava-Veeras are the sons of the Nava-Shaktis born by the grace of Shiva, and are Subrahmanya’s brothers. The eldest of them is Veerabahu. They assist him in war.

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words


शृङ्गार – handsome

शक्ति-आयुध – Spear (Vel in Tamil) as the weapon

धर – holding

शरवणस्य – Saravana

दासो-अहं – Servant, I am

अनिशं – for ever

धन धान्य – wealth and grains

प्रदस्य – giver

समष्टि चरणम्

गङ्गा अमृत – The Ganga River water

पूरित घट- Filled pot

अभिषेकस्य – the one who is bathed in

गद्य – prose

पद्य- poetry

आदि – etc

नुत – euologise/glorify

कोमळ-तर पदस्य – lotus like feet

अङ्गारक-आदि – Planet mars etc

नव ग्रह – nine planets

वन्दितस्य – worshipped

आदि मध्य-अन्त रहित- beginning, middle and end

अप्रमेय – immeay

वरस्य – eminent

जगद्-अम्बिका- the Goddess of the world – Parvati

आदि सकल देवता – and all celestials included

मोहित – charms

जनन-आदि खेद भञ्जन चतुर-तरस्य – the expert at shattering the sorrow caused by birth etc.

नग राज सुता – the consort of the king of serpents – i.e., consort of Siva viz. – Parvati

नन्दि-ईश – the God Nandi

नव नन्द-आदि – भक्त जन- all devitees including the the sons of the nine Shaktis of Siva

अन्तः-करण- minds

आनन्द – pleasing

गुरु गुहस्य – Guru Guha (signature name of the composer)

Dakshinamurthy Stothram- Sloka 1 – ஆன்மாவும் அண்டமும் – SELF & THE UNIVERSE – “JIVA & JAGAT”

We saw in the last two blogs the Vedantic Concepts behind the Mirror and Dream. Let us now see how Bhagwadpaada Adi Sankara uses these two examples and teaches us further.


विश्वं दर्पणदृश्यमाननगरीतुल्यं निजान्तर्गतं

पश्यन्नात्मनि मायया बहिरिवोद्भूतं यथा निद्रया

यः साक्षात्कुरुते प्रबोधसमये स्वात्मानमेवाद्वयं

तस्मै श्रीगुरुमूर्तये नम इदं श्रीदक्षिणामूर्तये ॥१॥

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்பு

நிலைக்கண்ணாடியில் பிரதிபலிக்கும் நகரமன்றோ

நிலையிலா இவ்வுலகமதின் நிழற்படம் நம்முள்ளே !

நம்முள்ளுறை தரணிதனை, நாம் உறவாடும் வெளியுலகமென

மனத்திரையில் காண்போம், விழித்தவுடன் மடியும் கனவென !

அவ்வாறே மாயையினால் மருவுடனே நமை அறியா நமக்கு,

ஆன்மீக விழிப்புணர்வூட்டி நம்முள்ளுறை தூய ஒருமையான

பரம்பொருளே நானெனும் ஆன்மா” எனும் அறிவு புகட்டும்

ஆதிஅந்தமிலா மோனநிலை ஆசானாம் அருள்மிகு

தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி  பொற்பாதம் பணிந்திடுவோம்

The Meaning:

“To Him who by illusion of Ātman, as by sleep, sees the Universe existing within Himself – like a city seen to exist within a mirror – as though it were manifested without; to Him who beholds, when awake, His own very Self, the second less; to Him who is incarnate in the Teacher; to Him in the Effulgent form facing the South, to Him (Siva) be this bow!”

First Line of the Sloka

विश्वं दर्पणदृश्यमाननगरीतुल्यं निजान्तर्गतं पश्यन्नात्मनि मायया बहिरिवोद्भूतं यथा निद्रया

Vishvam Darpana-Drshyamaana-Nagarii-Tulyam – viśvam means this visible universe; the universe which we see in our waking state is comparable to darpaṇa dṛśyamāna nagari tulyam, comparable to the reflected city being seen in a huge mirror.

Nija-Antargatam – This visvam is within oneself only

Pashyann-Aātmani – This visvam (the world we are experiencing within ourselves only) is actually existing in me, ātmani pasyathi.

Mayayaa –  because of the “aadhiṣṭāna ajnānam” i.e., avidya or maya (Ref the previous blogs)

bahiri udbhūtam – appears as though outside,

yathaa – like

nidrayaa – when we are asleep,

(the dream world which is really existing within ourselves appears as though outside, when we are asleep – implied meaning).

Iva – By using the word iva: as though outside, Sankaracharya conveyed that it is really not outside, everything is inside me only.

Second Line of the Sloka

यः साक्षात्कुरुते प्रबोधसमये स्वात्मानमेवाद्वयं Yah Saakssaat-Kurute Prabodha-Samaye Sva-[A]ātmaanam-Eva-Advayam

Yah:  – In this context refers to the sleeping person “supta puruṣaḥ”; and this sleeping person was seeing the svapna viśvam outside; the sleeping person was seeing the dream world outside;

prabhodha samaya –  but when the sleeping person wakes up, what is his experience; his outside dream world is resolved into himself. All elements of svapna viz. svpna deśa disappears into himself; svapna kālaḥ, svapna padārthaḥ, svapna jīvaḥ, they all dissolve effortlessly; since the entire dream world is resolved into himself, what remains? he the waker alone remains. Therefore, “supta puruṣaḥ, prabodha samaye,

advaiyam svatmānam sākṣātkurute” –  meaning that on waking up, the sleeping person recognises himself as the secondless one; without any dream object. After waking up, I do not see the waker; I claim myself to be the waker. This claiming is called sākṣātkāraha. I should not use any other verb. If I say I see the waker, waker appears to be another person. If I say I experience the waker; it appears as though waker is different. Suppose I say I become the waker; even that word is not correct strictly because; there is no becoming involved; I was the waker before, I am the waker now, therefore, I do not even become the waker. I claim myself to be the waker; this claiming is called sākṣātkāraha.

Similarly, in self-knowledge, I do not experience the ātma/ In self-knowledge I do not see the ātma. In self-knowledge I do not become the ātma; In self-knowledge I claim I am the ātma. And this peculiar process of claiming is called sākṣātkāraha. So, it is not coming face to face. sākṣātkāraha, if it is translated as direct experience, we will have all kinds of misconception that when I wake up Brahman will be standing in front, smiling, giving darshanam. It is not like that, I am the waker. Therefore, prabhoda samaye, on waking up supta puruṣaḥ svātmaanam advyayam eva sākṣātkārute.

Last Line of the Sloka

तस्मै श्रीगुरुमूर्तये नम इदं श्रीदक्षिणामूर्तये Tasmai Shrii-Guru-Muurtaye Nama Idam Shrii-Dakssinnaamuurtaye

tasmai  – means prabuddha puruṣāya; to that woken-up person, who is a jnāni; who is liberated; who knows I am jagatadhishtaanam, to that jnani my namaskaaram. So tasmai prabuddha puruṣāya, jnānine namaha. And who is that jnāni?

Shree gurumurthaye – who alone is a guru, who alone can serve as a guru and who is my guru, gurumoorthaye.

Namaha – my salutations.

Thus we can see that a complex concept in Philosophy is explained by Adi Sankara in just two lines using two simple day to day events in human life – the examples of viewing in a mirror and dreaming captures the essence of Vedanta. We will conclude the Sloka 1 in the next blog with a summary.


மேற்கோள் நூல்கள்

1. Dakṣiṇāmurty. Sthothram – Talks By Swami Paramarthananda; Transcribed by Sri P.S. Ramachandrn; Published by :Arsha Avinash

2. Dakshinamurti Stotra with Mānasollāsa of Sureśvarācārya translated by Alladi Mahadeva Sastri

3.சங்கரரின் தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி தோத்திரம்: சைவசித்தாந்த விளக்கம் – முனைவர்கோ.ந. முத்துக்குமாரசுவாமிwww.tamilhindu.com/

4. Prof. Mahadevan, IIM, Bangalore – https://www.sanskritfromhome.in/course/daksinamurtiSthothram /

5. https://Vedāntaḥstudents.com/class-notes/#1539832350612-778c6bda-cf96

6. தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி ஸ்தோத்திரம் – பகவான் ரமண மகரிஷி

Absolute Surrender to Sankara – TOTAKAASHTAKAM – ॥ तोटकाष्टकं ॥

In the process of my spiritual journey, I have been trying to understand the works of Adi Sankaracharya. The child in me ventured and tried to understand the following works of Adi Sankara so far.

Sivananda Lahari, Siva Panchaksharam, Subramanya Bhujangam, Nirvana Shatakam, Bhaja Govindam and Ganesha Pancharathnam. The current venture is into Dakshinamurthy Sthothram.

Last week during one of my Whatsapp messaging with my eldest brother (whose name is incidentally Gurumoorthy), I got the link of the MS Subbulakshmi’s song on Totakaashtakam. That was the trigger.

How childish I am and how immature I have been! True to the nature of a child (as would be described by Adi Sankara himself in one of the Slokas of Dakshinamurthy Stothram), it didn’t even occur to me that I should offer my prayers to Adi Sankara himself first, before venturing. How can anyone commence a journey without offering prayers to the காவல் தெய்வம் ? (The Protector) Sankara.

To me it became clear that The Guru, appeared as an innocuous message from my brother Gurumoorthy and triggered me to dive into Totakaashtakam and ensure that I don’t carry on the journey without offering my prayers to Adi Sankara – the Akhila Guru’s (Lord Sankara’s) avatar.

So, here is my humble understanding of the Ashtakam and my prayers to Adi Sankaracharya.

I dedicate this translation to the lotus feet of Maha Periavaa Sri Paramacharya of Kanchi. Here is a rare video clip of Maha Periavaa explaining Totakaashtakam.

I will resume Dakshinamurthy Stothram now in the next blog on 07th May 2021.