Meenakshi Pancharathnam – Sloka 1

Audio Link

https://www.dropbox.com/s/47wfb8xjqyhkxog/MPM%201.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Verse 1

उद्यद्भानुसहस्रकोटिसदृशां केयूरहारोज्ज्वलां

विम्बोष्ठीं स्मितदन्तपङ्क्तिरुचिरां पीताम्बरालङ्कृताम्

विष्णुब्रह्मसुरेन्द्रसेवितपदां तत्त्वस्वरूपां शिवां

मीनाक्षीं प्रणतोऽस्मि सन्ततमहं कारुण्यवारांनिधिम् ॥१॥

Meaning in Tamil – தமிழாக்கம்

உதிக்கும் செங்கதிரொளி ஓராயிரம் கோடி நிகருடன்

ஒளிமிகு கைவளைகாப்பு அணி நறுந்தொடையுடன்

கொவ்வைச் செவ்வாய் கோர்வை முத்துப்பல்வரிசை உதிர்

குமிண் சிரிப்புடன் பொன் பட்டாடை அணிந்து

அரங்கனும் அயனும் அமரனும் போற்றிடும் பாதமிரண்டுடன்

மெய்ப்பொருளின் பொங்கும் மங்கல உருவுடை

அங்கயற்கண்ணியே, அடிபணிவேன் யான் அனுதினமுமே

கருணைக்கடலே ! 1

ஆயிரம் கோடி உதயசூரியனின் ஒளிக்கு ஈடான ஒளியை உடையவளும்; வளையல்கள், மாலைகள் போன்ற அணிகளால் ஒளிவீசுபவளும்; கோவைப்பழங்கள் போன்ற இதழ்களை உடையவளும் புன்னகை புரியும் பல்வரிசைகள் உடையவளும்; பொன் பட்டாடைகளால் அழகு பெற்றவளும் திருமால், பிரமன், தேவர் தலைவன் போன்றவர்களால் வணங்கப்பட்ட திருவடிகளை உடையவளும் உண்மைப் பொருளானவளும் மங்கள வடிவானவளும் கருணைக்கடல் ஆனவளும் பெரும் செல்வம் ஆனவளும் ஆன மீனாட்சியை அடியேன் எப்பொழுதும் வணங்குகிறேன்.

Meaning in English

1.1: I meditate on Devi Meenakshi Who is rising (in my mental vision) with the splendour of Thousand Million Suns, shining with Bracelets and Garlands (matching the splendour of the rising Suns),

1.2: She is rising with a Smiling Face, (appearing beautiful) with Lips Red like Bimba Fruits, and having beautiful Rows of Teeth; She is adorned with shining Yellow Garments (which are again matching the splendour of the rising Suns),

1.3: Vishnu, Brahma and the king of Suras (i.e. Indra Deva) are serving Her Lotus Feet; And Her Auspicious Form is of the essence of Eternal Consciousness (Tattva),

1.4: (Seeing that vision) I Bow down again and again to Devi Meenakshi, Who is an Ocean of Compassion.

English Transliteration

Udyad-Bhaanu-Sahasra-Kotti-Sadrshaam Keyuura-Haaro[a-U]jjvalaam

Vimbo[a-O]sstthiim Smita-Danta-Pangkti-Ruciiraam Piita-Ambara-Alangkrtaam |

Vissnnu-Brahma-Surendra-Sevita-Padaam Tattva-Svaruupaam Shivaam

Miinaakssiim Prannato-[A]smi Santatam-Aham Kaarunnya-Vaaraam-Nidhim ||1||

Transliteration in Tamil

உத்³யத்³பா⁴நு ஸஹஸ்ரகோடிஸத்³ருʼஶாம் கேயூரஹாரோஜ்ஜ்வலாம்

பி³ம்போ³ஷ்டீ²ம் ஸ்மிதத³ந்தபங்க்திருசிராம் பீதாம்ப³ராலங்க்ருʼதாம் ।

விஷ்ணுப்³ரஹ்மஸுரேந்த்³ரஸேவிதபதா³ம் தத்வஸ்வரூபாம் ஶிவாம்

மீனாக்ஷீம் ப்ரணதோ3ஸ்மி ஸந்ததமஹம் காருண்யவாராம்நிதி⁴ம் || 1 ||

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words (Meanings from greenmesg.org)

उद्यद्भानुसहस्रकोटिसदृशां (Udyad-Bhaanu-Sahasra-Kotti-Sadrshaam): Who shines like Thousand Million rising Suns

उद्यद् (Udyad) = Rising

भानु (Bhaanu) = Sun

सहस्र (Sahasra) = Thousand

कोटि (Kotti) = Ten Million

सदृश (Sadrsha) = Like, Resembling, Similar to

केयूरहारोज्ज्वलां (Keyuura-Haaroa-Ujjvalaam): Who is adorned with bracelets and garlands

केयूर (Keyuura) = Bracelet worn on the upper arm

हार (Haara) = Garland

उज्ज्वल (Ujjvala) = Luminous

विम्बोष्ठीं (Vimba-Osstthiim): Who has beautiful Lips like Bimba Fruits

विम्ब (Vimba) = Bimba Fruit

ओष्ठ (Ossttha) = Lip

स्मितदन्तपङ्क्तिरुचिरां (Smita-Danta-Pangkti-Ruciiraam): Who smiles gently and has beautiful rows of Teeth

स्मित (Smita) = Smiling

दन्त (Danta) = Teeth

पङ्क्ति (Pangkti) = Row or Set

रुचिर (Rucira) = Pleasant, Charming

पीताम्बरालङ्कृताम् (Piita-Ambara-Alangkrtaam): Who is adorned with shining Yellow Garments

पीत (Piita) = Yellow

अम्बर (Ambara) = Clothes, Apparel, Garment

अलङ्कृत (Alangkrta) = Adorned, Decorated

विष्णुब्रह्मसुरेन्द्रसेवितपदां (Vissnnu-Brahma-Surendra-Sevita-Padaam): Whose Lotus Feet is served by Vishnu, Brahma and the king of Suras, i.e. Indra Deva

विष्णु (Vissnnu) = Sri Vishnu

ब्रह्म (Brahma) = Sri Brahma

सुरेन्द्र (Surendra) = The Lord of Devas, Indra Deva

सेवित (Sevita) = Served

पद (Pada) = Foot

तत्त्वस्वरूपां (Tattva-Svaruupaam): Who is the embodiment of the essence of Existence

तत्त्व (Tattva) = True or Real State

स्वरूप (Svaruupa) = One’s own nature

शिवां (Shivaam): Who is Auspicious

शिव (Shiva) = Auspicious

मीनाक्षीं (Miinaakssiim): Devi Meenakshi

प्रणतोऽस्मि (Prannato-Asmi): I [always] bow down [to Devi Meenakshi]

प्रणत (Prannata) = Bowed to, saluted reverentially

अस्मि (Asmi) = I am

सन्ततमहं (Santatam-Aham): I always [bow down to Devi Meenakshi]

सन्तत (Santata) = Always

अहम् (Aham) = I

कारुण्यवारांनिधिम् (Kaarunnya-Vaaraam-Nidhim): Who is an ocean of Compassion

कारुण्य (Kaarunnya) = Compassion, Kindness

वारि (Vaari) = Water

निधि (Nidhi) = Sea, Receptacle

Mind and Guruguha Bhakti – A Carnatic Perspective of Vedanta

Palani Murugan

Preamble

Around the Christmas period in the month Marghazhi (December 26th to be precise), we were travelling by road from Dindigul to Coimbatore via the holy place of Palani. We saw a continuous stream of people walking on barefoot all along the stretch of the highway that led to Palani. It was clearly an indication that the bhakti filled festival of Thaipoosam is not far away.

“Thaipoosam is an important festival observed by the Hindus of southern India during the Tamil month of Thai (January – February). Outside of India, it is celebrated mainly by the Tamil speaking community settled in Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka and elsewhere around the world. Thaipusam is dedicated to the Hindu god Murugan, the son of Shiva and Parvati. Murugan is also known as Karttikeya, Subrahmanya, Sanmukha, Shadanana, Skanda and Guha. It is believed that on this day, Goddess Parvati presented a lance to Lord Murugan to vanquish the demon army of Tarakasura and combat their evil deeds. Therefore, Thaipusam is a celebration of the victory of good over evil. Thaipusam is celebrated during the full moon in the Tamil month of Thai and commemorates the birthday of the Hindu deity Murugan.”

All along the drive I was thinking if I could relate this bhakti oriented activity with the Advaita Vedantic mindset that I have been focusing on over the last couple of years and come out with some learning that will be immensely satisfying. In other words, I need to link Guha (Bhakti) with Sankara (Advaita); the Manifest with the Unmanifest; the Son with the Father. Looks simple; but impossible without a Guru.

That thinking took me to another Guruguha, one of the trinity in Carnatic music world. Yes, Muthuswamy Dikshithar provided me, the link for relating Bhakti with Vedanta.

Here is that link

Audio Link

https://www.dropbox.com/s/cayaurvs20rng42/Muthuswamy%20Dikshitar%20Kriti-%20Manasa%20Guruguha-%20Anandabhairavi-%20Rupakam-%20DK%20Pattamal-WXfG6a5FsEI.mp3?dl=0

Now let us study this Kriti (composition)

Sanskrit Verses

पल्लवि

मानस गुरु गुह रूपं भजरे रे

माया-मय हृत्तापं त्यजरे रे

अनुपल्लवि

मानव जन्मनि संप्राप्ते सति

परमात्मनि निरतिशय सुखं व्रजरे रे

चरणम्

सत्व गुणोपाधि सहित सदाशिवं

स्वाविद्या समेत जीवोद्भवम्

तत्वं तामस युत विश्व वैभवं

तारकेश्वरं आनन्द भैरवम्

(मध्यम काल साहित्यम्)

नत्वा श्री गुरु चरणं कृत्वा नाम स्मरणं

जित्वा मोहावरणं मत्वा त्वदेक शरणम्

English Transliteration

Pallavi

mānasa guru guha rūpaṃ bhajarē rē

māyā-maya hṛttāpaṃ tyajarē rē

Anupallavi

mānava janmani saṃprāptē sati

paramātmani niratiśaya sukhaṃ vrajarē rē

Caraṇa

satva guṇōpādhi sahita sadāśivaṃ

svāvidyā samēta jīvōdbhavam

tatvaṃ tāmasa yuta viśva vaibhavaṃ

tārakēśvaraṃ ānanda bhairavam

(madhyama kāla sāhitya)

natvā śrī guru caraṇaṃ kṛtvā nāma smaraṇaṃ

jitvā mōhāvaraṇaṃ matvā tvadēka śaraṇam

Meaning in English

Oh mind, worship the form of Guruguhan. Give up the agony of the heart caused by illusion.When human birth has been obtained, attain the perfect unsurpassed bliss of the Supreme Being ( don’t waste the opportunity) He is SADASIVA, full of SATVAGUNA;All living beings are born out of Him as the result of the impact of AVIDYA. The universe with its TAMASIC qualities is again a manifestation of His greatness; He is TARAKESVARA and ANANDA BHAIRAVA. Prostrate on His feet ; Mediate on His name; Conquer the veil of illusion and Think of Him as your sole refuge.

Meaning in Tamil

பல்லவி

போற்றிடுவாய் மனமே குருகுகன் வடிவம்தனையே

அகற்றிடுவாய் மாயைவிளை இதய நோவதனையே

அனுபல்லவி

அரிய மானிடப் பிறவியெடுத்த நீ,

அடைந்திடு நாடி இறையருட் பேரின்பம்தனை

சரணம்

நற்குணப்பண்பின் வடிவான சதாசிவன் அவன்

அகஇருள் விளை உயிரின உருவகமூலம் அவன்

இருள்நிறை இவ்வண்டம் கடந்த பேரொளி அவன்

காக்கும் கடவுளாம் ஆனந்த பைரவன் அவன்

மத்தியம கால சாகித்யம்

குருகுகனின் பாதம் பணிந்து நாமம் துதித்து

இருள் மாயத்திரையகற்றி அடைக்கலம் அவன்

ஒருவனே என நினைந்து ….போற்றிடுவாய் மனமே

Understanding the Kriti

Right at the beginning of the Kriti (Pallavi), Muthuswamy Dikshithar relates Jiva, Jagat and Isvara through their manifestations Mind, Maya and Guha. He “straight away instructs the mind to strive for higher goals – “Oh mind!!(“rE mAnasa”) meditate on (“bhajarE”) guha, the form of guru and abandon (“tyajarE”) the delusionary (“mAya-maya”) sorrows and afflictions of the heart/mind (“hRttApam”). He straightaway equates a guru as a form of the Lord Himself and commands the mind to worship him and meditate on him.”

Continuing, Dikshithar in the anupallavi, says “Having obtained the human birth form, go,take the path and try to attain the unsurpassed bliss associated with the supreme consciousness” – a reference to the Isavasya Upanishad Slokas which outline the paths that one can pursue for understanding the “Atma Svaroopam”.

In the caraNam, dIkshitar describes the Lord as ” The form of everlasting consciousness (“sadASivaM”), the one endowed with (“sahita”) with qualities of (“guNOpAdhi”) satva. The one from whom all the living beings (“jIva”) are born (“udbhavam”) as a result of their own ignorance (“sva avidya”). His greatness (“vaibhavaM”) symbolises the truth (“tatvam”) that lies beyond this world (“viSva”) filled with tamasic qualities (“tAmasa yuta”). He is tArakEswara, the Lord who helps cross this ocean of samsara. He is the form of Anandabhairava, radiating ever-lasting bliss”. Again I am reminded of the Shanthi Sloka and the first Sloka of Isavasya Upanishad – Isavasyam idham sarvam.

In the madhyamakAla sAhityam, Dikshithar says “Worship (“natvA”) the feet (“caraNam”) of the auspicious preceptor (“shrI guru”). Chant and meditate on his name (“nAmasmaraNam”). Conquer (“jitvA”) the sheath/veil (“AvaraNam”) of delusion/desire (“mOha”). Surrender to him as the sole (“twadEka”) refuge (“SaraNam”).” Pray, meditate, get mind control, come out of ignorance, surrender and reach Sat Cit Ananda – the very process that takes you to your SELF and reveals that “Tat Tvam Asi” which is the essence of Vedanta.

Narayaneeyam – Dasakam 2 – Sloka 10

Preamble

Having brought out the distinct advantages of Bhakti Yoga in the previous Slokas, Bhattathri concludes this Dasakam with a fervent prayer to Lord Guruvayurappan in Sloka 10.

Audio Link

https://www.dropbox.com/s/xzjy6aktmvhbodb/Verse%202.10.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Verse

त्वद्भक्तिस्तु कथारसामृतझरीनिर्मज्जनेन स्वयं

सिद्ध्यन्ती विमलप्रबोधपदवीमक्लेशतस्तन्वती ।

सद्यस्सिद्धिकरी जयत्ययि विभो सैवास्तु मे त्वत्पद-

प्रेमप्रौढिरसार्द्रता द्रुततरं वातालयाधीश्वर ॥१०॥

English Transliteration

tvadbhaktistu kathaarasaamR^itajhariinirmajjanena svayaM

siddhyantii vimalaprabOdhapadaviimakleshatastanvatii |

sadyassiddhikarii jayatyayi vibhO saivaastu me tvatpadapremaprauDhirasaardrataadrutataraM vaataalayaadhiishvara

Tamil Transliteration

த்வத்₃ப₄க்திஸ்து கதா₂ரஸாம்ருதஜ₂ரீநிர்மஜ்ஜநேந ஸ்வயம்

ஸித்₃த்₄யந்தீ விமலப்ரபோ₃த₄பத₃வீமக்லேஶதஸ்தந்வதீ |

ஸத்₃யஸ்ஸித்₃தி₄கரீ ஜயத்யயி விபோ₄ ஸைவாஸ்து மே த்வத்பத₃-

ப்ரேமப்ரௌடி₄ரஸார்த்₃ரதா த்₃ருததரம் வாதாலயாதீ₄ஶ்வர || 10||

Meaning in Tamil

உன் சரிதமெனும் அமுத வெள்ளப் பேரின்பமதில் மூழ்கி யாம்

உளம் திளைத்தால் எளிதினில் அடைய வல்லது பக்தி நிலை

உடனடி கிட்டிடுமே மேலான மாசிலாப் பேரின்ப ஞான நிலை

அளவிலா பற்றுடன் அடியேன் உன் திருவடி போற்றி

உளமுருகி புளகிதம் பெற அருளிடுவாய் விரைவினிலே

உலகாளோனே அந்நிலை எனக்கு குருவாயூரப்பனே 2.10

Meaning in English

O all pervading Lord! Devotion to Thee is easily attainable just by submerging oneself in the nectarine flood of Thy stories. This can be done without much effort and it instantly leads to pure Knowledge – Bliss. O Lord of Guruvaayur! May I soon experience that state of melting of the heart in intense love for Thy lotus feet.

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

त्वद्भक्तिः तु = त्वत्-भक्तिः तु = devotion to Thee, indeed

कथारसामृतझरीनिर्मज्जनेन = कथायाः + रसः + अमृतम् + झरी = कथारस-अमृतझरी = in the flow of nectar showering from Thy stories

निमज्जनम् = by submerging in its bliss =

स्वयम् सिद्ध्यन्ती = is self attainable, directly

विमलप्रबोधपदवीम् = विमल-प्रबोध-पदवीम् = the state of pure knowledge and enlightenment

अक्लेशतः = (नक्लेशः = अक्लेशः) = without any effort

तन्वती = bestows (because it gives)

सद्यः सिद्धिकरी = instant achievement

जयति = (and) is superior (to the other two paths)

अयि विभो = O Thou Universal Lord!

सा एव अस्तु मे = may I have that (Bhakti)

त्वत्पदप्रेमप्रौढिरसार्द्रता = त्वत्-पद-प्रेम-प्रौढि-रस-आर्द्रता = the state of melting of the heart from the bliss of intense love for Thy feet

द्रुततरम् = very soon

वातालयाधीश्वर = O Lord of Guruvaayur!

Narayaneeyam – Dasakam 2 – Sloka 9

Pencil Sketch by my niece

Preamble

There are six important Slokas (Slokas 9-14) of Isavasya Upanishad that clearly bring out the limitations of following the paths of Karma, Upasana and Gnana in isolation, in our spiritual journey. A seamless integrated approach is what is recommended for ordinary mortals like us in our journey. I get a feeling that Bhattathri echoes this philosophy in Sloka 9. Let us study this Sloka.

Audio Link

https://www.dropbox.com/s/67ztrum4updugn9/Verse%202.9.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Verse

अत्यायासकराणि कर्मपटलान्याचर्य निर्यन्मला

बोधे भक्तिपथेऽथवाऽप्युचिततामायान्ति किं तावता

क्लिष्ट्वा तर्कपथे परं तव वपुर्ब्रह्माख्यमन्ये पुन

श्चित्तार्द्रत्वमृते विचिन्त्य बहुभिस्सिद्ध्यन्ति जन्मान्तरैः॥९॥

English Transliteration

atyaayaasakaraaNi karmapaTalaanyaacharya niryanmalaaH

bOdhe bhaktipathe(a)thavaa(a)pyuchitataamaayaanti kiM taavataa |

kliShTvaa tarkapathe paraM tava vapurbrahmaakhyamanye punashchittaardratvamR^

ite vichintya bahubhissiddhyanti janmaantaraiH ||

Tamil Transliteration

அத்யாயாஸகராணி கர்மபடலாந்யாசர்ய நிர்யந்மலா

போ₃தே₄ ப₄க்திபதே₂(அ)த₂வா(அ)ப்யுசிததாமாயாந்தி கிம் தாவதா |

க்லிஷ்ட்வா தர்கபதே₂ பரம் தவ வபுர்ப்₃ரஹ்மாக்₂யமந்யே புந-

ஶ்சித்தார்த்₃ரத்வம்ருதே விசிந்த்ய ப₃ஹுபி₄ஸ்ஸித்₃த்₄யந்தி ஜந்மாந்தரை: || 9||

Meaning in Tamil

முழுமுயல்வும் மிகு சிரமமும் ஏற்று கர்மயோகம்தனைப் புரிந்து

மும்மலமகற்றி ஞான பக்தி யோகம் புரிய தகுதி பெறுவர் சிலர்.

இத்துனை முயன்றினும் அவர்தம் பெற்றிடும் பயன்தான் என்ன !

உளஅழுத்தமிகு தருக்கம் பல புரிந்து பிரமமெனும் பரம்பொருளை

உணர உழையும் பலர்; எனினும் உளமுருகி உனைப்பாடா அவர்

பல பிறவி எடுத்து அல்லல் எனும் மாசு அறுத்தடைவர் உனையே !

2.9

Meaning in English

O Lord! Some people follow the path of Karma Yoga,and perform the various disciplines for long and attain mental purity. This only entitles them to become fit for the practice of Gyaana or Bhakti yoga. Some others strive hard pondering over the attributeless Supreme Brahman, based on logic and reason. They, without melting their hearts in love for Thee, take a long time to reach their goal of perfection.

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

अत्यायासकराणि = अति-आयास-कराणि = great + effort + to be done = demanding great effort –

कर्मपटलानि = कर्मणाम् पटलम् कर्मपटलम् = Karma + portion/piece/section/chapter = the disciplines of Karma (yoga) = கர்மயோக

आचर्य = to be approached = by performing = புரிந்து

निर्यन्मलाः = निर्यन्तः + मलाः = set free + impurity = become purified (in mind) = மலமகற்றி

बोधे = awakening/knowledge = (required) for following the path of Gyaana (yoga) = ஞானோதயம்

भक्तिपथे अथवा अपि = भक्ते: + पथम् + अथवा + अपि  = devotee + path + rather/and + also = and also for the path of Bhakti (yoga) = பக்தி மாரக்கமதிலும்

उचितताम् आयान्ति = उचितताम् + आयान्ति = fitness + gain = (one) gains fitness – தகுதி பெற்று

किम् तावता = किं + तावता = why + to that extent = what is the use (after spending so much effort) = இத்துனை முயற்சியின் பலன் என்ன

क्लिष्ट्वा तर्कपथे = क्लिष्ट्वा तर्कपथे = क्लिष्ट्वा + (तर्कस्य पथम् ) तर्कपथम् = distress/strain + logical reasoning + path = of straining in the path of logical reasoning (Gyaana yoga) = மிகை முயல் தருக்க விளை ஞான யோகம்

परम् तव वपुः ब्रह्माख्यम् = परं + तव + वपु: + ब्रह्म + आख्यम्- = Supreme + You + body + Brahman + name/known = (because) Thy unmanifested aspect known as Supreme Brahman = பிரமனெனும் பரம் பொருள்

अन्ये पुनः = others, however மற்றோர் எனினும்

चित्तार्द्रत्वम् ऋते = चित्त + आर्द्रत्वम् + ऋते = mind/heart + wet/moist/ + without = without melting of the heart (in love) – உளம் உருகி

विचिन्त्य = pondering over (trying to fathom)= தீர எண்ணி

बहुभिः = (take) a lot of (time) – வெகு நேரம்

सिद्ध्यन्ति = मनसः आर्द्रता = accomplishing = attain அடைவர்

जन्मान्तरैः = जन्मन: + अन्तर: = life + another = अनेकजन्मभिः = after many lives – பல பிறவி எடுத்த பின்

Narayaneeyam – Dasakam 2 – Sloka 8

Audio Link

https://www.dropbox.com/s/8z35twv6eldlvvd/Verse%202.8.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Verse

निष्कामं नियतस्वधर्मचरणं यत् कर्मयोगाभिधं

तद्दूरेत्यफलं यदौपनिषदज्ञानोपलभ्यं पुनः ।

तत्त्वव्यक्ततया सुदुर्गमतरं चित्तस्य तस्माद्विभो

त्वत्प्रेमात्मकभक्तिरेव सततं स्वादीयसी श्रेयसी ॥८॥

English Transliteration

niShkaamaM niyatasvadharmacharaNaM yat karmayOgaabhidhaM

tadduuretyaphalaM yadaupaniShadaj~naanOpalabhyaM punaH |

tattvavyaktatayaa sudurgamataraM chittasya tasmaadvibhO

tvatpremaatmakabhaktireva satataM svaadiiyasii shreyasii 8

Tamil Transliteration

நிஷ்காமம் நியதஸ்வத₄ர்மசரணம் யத் கர்மயோகா₃பி₄த₄ம்

தத்₃தூ₃ரேத்யப₂லம் யதௌ₃பநிஷத₃ஜ்ஞாநோபலப்₄யம் புந: |

தத்த்வவ்யக்ததயா ஸுது₃ர்க₃மதரம் சித்தஸ்ய தஸ்மாத்₃விபோ₄

த்வத்ப்ரேமாத்மகப₄க்திரேவ ஸததம் ஸ்வாதீ₃யஸீ ஶ்ரேயஸீ || 8||

Meaning in Tamil

பற்றிலா புரி வரைபணியெனும் கர்மயோகம்

பலனளிக்க காலம் வெகு கடந்திடும்

உபநிடதச்சாறெனும் பரம்பொருள் கண்டறியும் ஞானயோகம்

முதிர்வடையா மூலபாடமதனால், முனைய மனம் கானும் கடினம்

காதலாகி உளமுருகி உனைத் துதிக்கும் பக்தியோகம்

அளவிலா இனிமையுடன் என்றும் பேரின்பம் உலகோனே 2.8

Meaning in English

While Karma yoga consisting of all actions without desire for results,

Would yield results only after a very long time and while Jnana Yoga,

ஸWhich is available in the concepts enunciated in the Upanishads,

Is extremely difficult to follow, due to its being not in the grip of various sensory organs,

Oh Lord, the devotion to you based on love to you is very sweet and satisfying. 2.8

காதலாகிக் கசிந்து கண்ணீர் மல்கி
ஓதுவார் தமை நன்நெறிக்கு உய்ப்பது
வேதம் நான்கினும் மெய்ப்பொருளாவது
நாதன் நாமம் நமச்சிவாயவே.

என்ற திருஞானசம்பந்தரின் திருப்பதிகம் என் நினைவிற்கு வருகிறது.

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

निष्कामम् – desire less, without self desire

नियतस्वधर्मचरणम् – नियतः + स्वधर्मः (स्वस्य ध) + चरणम् = assigned/laid down + one’s own duty + practice/follow = performance of one’s duties

यत् कर्मयोगाभिधम्  = यत् + कर्मयोगः + इति + अभिधम् = that + karma yoga + which is + named = that which is called Karma yoga – கர்மயோகம்

तत् दूरेत्यफलम् = तत् + दूरात्एत्यम् + फलं = that + distant + fruitful = that becomes fruitful only in a distant future

यत् औपनिषदज्ञानोपलभ्यम् पुनः = यत् + औपनिषदः + उपलभ्यम् + ज्ञानं + पुनः = (Note – औपनिषदोपलभ्यं च तत् ज्ञानं च = औपनिषदज्ञानोपलभ्यम्) = that which + the fruit of the Upanishad which is Brahman + knowledge + again = (again) that which consists in attaining knowledge of Brahman as described in the Upanishads

तत् तु अव्यक्ततया = तत् + तु + न व्यक्तता = अव्यक्त = that + indeed + not evolved = तत्-तु-अव्यक्ततया = that indeed being abstract

सुदुर्गमतरम् चित्तस्य = सुदुर्गमतरम् + चित्तस्य = very difficult to cross + for the mind = is very difficult for the mind to pursue

तस्मात् विभो = hence, O All pervading Lord

त्वत्प्रेमात्मकभक्तिः एव = त्वत्प्रेम (त्वयि प्रेम ) + आत्मा + भक्तिः + एव = Love for you + soul + devotion + only = the Bhakti yoga which consists only in love for Thee

सततम् = is always

स्वादीयसी = अतिमधुरा = the sweetest

श्रेयसी = most beneficial

Dakshinamuthy Stothram – Sloka 10 – The Gains – தோத்திர பலன்

Audio Link

https://www.dropbox.com/s/vc32217p3kznqt0/Sloka%2010%20-%20Sarvaatmatvam%20Iti%20Sphutti.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Sloka

सर्वात्मत्वमिति स्फुटीकृतमिदं यस्मादमुष्मिन् स्तवे
तेनास्य श्रवणात्तदर्थमननाद्ध्यानाच्च संकीर्तनात् ।
सर्वात्मत्वमहाविभूतिसहितं स्यादीश्वरत्वं स्वतः
सिद्ध्येत्तत्पुनरष्टधा परिणतं चैश्वर्यमव्याहतम् ॥१०॥

Meaning in Tamil

அருட் பெரும் ஜோதியாம் பரம்பொருளே ஆன்மா எனும் அறிவு பூட்டும்

கருவூலமாம் சங்கரனின் இத்தோத்திரம்தனை செவிமடுத்து சிந்தித்து

தியானித்து புகழ்பாடினால் இறையருளின் இருநான்கு வடிவதனின்

நிலையறிந்து மோனஆசானின் அருளுடனே நாலிரு சித்தி பெற்று

பிறவிப் பெருங்கடல் தாண்டி ஈடேறி வீடுபேறு பெற்றிடலாம்

Meaning in English:

Since the Divine Essence in all is made clear in this hymn, hence by listening to it, contemplating on its meaning, meditating on it, and glorifying it, one becomes endowed with the greatness of the knowledge of the Divine Essence ( present in all ); perhaps the Divine Essence by Itself will awaken within him after that again, the eightfold manifestations of Divine powers (Siddhis) unimpeded.

Understanding the Sloka:

Extracted from Swami Paramarthananda’s lectures

iti idam sarvātvamiti spūṭikritam. – In this manner, in nine verses, the sarvātva bhāva which is the essence of all the Upanishads has been taught by me. Adi Śankarācārya says in this manner, in 9 verses, I have taught or condensed the essence of all the upanishads; the essence of prastāna trayam I have given and What is the essence? sarvātmatvam. And what do you mean by sarvātmatvam, sarvam ātma eva. Everything in the creation is ātma alone; other than ātma there is nothing. The so-called anātma is also mithya, which has the content of ātma alone; Just as the so-called ornaments also are not separate substances, they are also nothing but gold with different names. Similarly, the so-called anātma prapancha also is also ātma only, with a different name; Names are different, but the substance is only ātma. And this is called sarvātmatvam, sarvam ātma iti bhavaha, sarvātmatvam. If you want to put in our own language, जीवात्म परमात्म ऐक्र्म् jīvātma paramātma aikyam,; we can also say brahma satya jagat mityā, jīvo brahmaiva na parāḥ. This vedantic essence has been taught by me; Śankarā says:

Where did I teach it? अमुक्षष्मन् स्तवे amuṣmin stave, in this sthoram called dakṣiṇāmūrti Sthothram; here he did not use the word ashtake; because two more added, therefore no more Ashtakam, instead of using the word ashtakam, he uses the word sthavam; Sthavam is the same as sthoram; sthoram means a hymn or praise of the Lord.

In this dakṣiṇāmūrti sthoram, that has been taught and therefore, study of dakṣiṇāmūrti sthoram is equal to the study of the प्रस्तान त्रर्म् prastāna trayam; because the content of dakṣiṇāmūrti sthothram is the same as the content of the prastāna trayam; means upanishads, geetha and brahma sutram. In all the upanishads, Geetha and brahma sutra, whatever has been taught; that is given in capsule form

“Thena”, therefore since dakṣiṇāmūrti sthoram is equal to प्रस्तान त्रर्म् prastāna trayam; अस्र् श्रवणा asya śravaṇā, a person, a seeker of moksha, should do the śravaṇam of this work. (Systematic and consistent study of this work for a length of time under the guidance of a competent teacher). So śrava ṇat; and not only śravaṇam, tat artha mananāt, one should also do the mananam, to find out whether there are any doubts in accepting this teaching. And what is this teaching? There is nothing other than me; the ātma; सवात्य मत्वम sarvātmatvam that means, I alone am in the form of everything; I am all.

And then dhyānāt; and later this has to be assimilated, so that it becomes my second nature; So śravaṇa manana nididhyāsana sādanāni. And then सङ्कीतयनात् saṅkīrtanāt. The word saṅkīrtanāt is given two meanings; for those people who are not fit for śravaṇa manana nididhyāsanam; because they do not have साधना चतुष्टर् संपवत्त sādhanā catuṣṭaya saṃpatti and therefore everything goes above their head, for those unprepared people; the word संकीतयनम saṃkīrtanam means by mere पारार्णम् pārāyaṇam itself they will gradually grow. They need not know the meaning. Let them daily chant this dakṣiṇāmūrti sthothram; that itself will give them sadhana catuṣṭaya saṃpatti; later opportunity for śravaṇam, manana nididhyāsanam. This sthotra will make you climb all those steps. Therefore even pārāyaṇam is a form of sādhana.

On the other hand, if a person is a qualified person and therefore, he has gone through śravaṇa manana nididhyāsanam; for those people, what is the next sādhana? If you call it sādhana, saṃkīrtanam, means after I assimilate this wisdom, I communicate this to others. Communication or sharing is another form of nididhyāsanam. It is a very beautiful form of nididhyāsanam.

And thus by following all these sādhanas, he will get the result; What is the result; सवात्य मत्वमहाववभूशत स्र्ात ् sarvātmatvamahāvibhūti syāt, he will attain the greatest glory, called sarvātmatvam, sarvātmatvam means the wisdom that I am everything. There is no second thing to frighten me; to harass; to torture me; to hurt me, to limit me, to isolate me, there is no second thing at all; this wisdom and this non-dual status is called sarvātmatvam, which is mahāvibhūti, which is the greatest glory called kaivalyam; Non-dual state.

And not only that. Look at the fourth line, aṣṭadāpariṇadam aiśvaryam ca; aṣṭadāpariṇadam aiśvaryam means aṣṭamūrti dakṣiṇāmūrti aikyam. aṣṭadāpariṇadam means eight-fold; ऐश्वर्मय् aiśvaryam is ईश्वरत्वम् īśvaratvam, which means the dakṣiṇāmūrti भावः bhāvaḥ. So, I will attain this status of ashta Moorthy dakṣiṇāmūrti . That means vishvaroopa dakṣiṇāmūrti aikyam;

This equanity is called svamitvam. And this mokṣaḥ is also svastāha, it has come from outside, it is only discovery of the very nature. svastāha means natural freedom; he claims. This is called jīvanmukti which will lead to videhamukti; which is the फलम् phalam.

Narayaneeyam – Dasakam 2 – Slokam 7 – Bhakti Yoga

Audio Link

https://www.dropbox.com/s/isk0vxwvmawjauk/Verse%202.7.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Verse

एवम्भूततया हि भक्त्यभिहितो योगस्स योगद्वयात्

कर्मज्ञानमयाद् भृशोत्तमतरो योगीश्वरैर्गीयते

सौन्दर्यैकरसात्मके त्वयि खलु प्रेमप्रकर्षात्मिका

भक्तिर्निःश्रममेव विश्वपुरुषैर्लभ्या रमावल्लभ ॥७॥

English Transliteration

evambhuutatayaa hi bhaktyabhihitO yOgassa yOgadvayaat

karmaj~naanamayaat bhR^ishOttamatarO yOgiishvarairgiiyate |

saundaryaikarasaatmake tvayi khalu premaprakarShaatmikaa

bhaktirnishramameva vishvapuruShairlabhyaa ramaavallabha || 7

Tamil Transliteration

ஏவம் பூ₄ததயா ஹி ப₄க்த்யபி₄ஹிதோ யோக₃ஸ்ஸ யோக₃த்₃வயாத்

கர்மஜ்ஞாநமயாத் ப்₄ருஶோத்தமதரோ யோகீ₃ஶ்வரைர்கீ₃யதே |

ஸௌந்த₃ர்யைகரஸாத்மகே த்வயி க₂லு ப்ரேமப்ரகர்ஷாத்மிகா

ப₄க்திர்நிஶ்ரமமேவ விஶ்வபுருஷைர்லப்₄யா ரமாவல்லப₄ || 7||

Meaning in Tamil

உனை அடையும் கர்ம ஞான வழி இரண்டிற்கும் மேல் உயர்வு

எனப் பெருமுனியோர் புகழாரம் பாடினரே பக்தி வழிதனை !

முனைவுடன் உளமுருகி உன்னெழில் வடிவு விளை பக்திவழி

அனைவரும் சிரமமின்றிச் சென்றிட அமைந்ததே ஶ்ரீபதியே! 2.7

Meaning in English

Due to this only the great god like sages have chosen the path of devotion*,

Over the two paths called path of action** and path of realization based on enquiry***,

And have sung and praised it as the most suitable path,

And so oh God who is very dear to the Goddess Lakshmi,

This path based on the devotion based concept of your prettiness,

Is very easily available for use to all persons of this world. 2.7

*Bhakti yoga **Karma yoga ***Jnana Yoga

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

एवम्भूततया हि = एवं + भूततया + हि – because of these + reality/truth + only ( it is be because of these reasons only)

भक्त्यभिहितः योगः सः = भक्ति + अभिहितः + योग: + सः – devotion + called as/known as+ yoga + that = that the yoga known as Bhakti (devotion), that

योगद्वयात् कर्मज्ञानमयात् – योगद्वयात् कर्म-ज्ञानमयात् – (in comparison to) the two yogas of Karma and Gyaana

भृशोत्तमतरः = भृशः च सः उत्तमतरः च = भृशोत्तमतरः = very much/indeed + that + is + superior = अत्युत्तमः – is indeed superior

योगीश्वरैः गीयते = योगीश्वरैः गीयते – so has been extolled by great sages

सौन्दर्यैकरसात्मके त्वयि खलु = सौन्दर्यम् + एकः + रस : + आत्मा = सौन्दर्यैक-रस-आत्मके त्वयि खलु = indeed in Thee, who are pure beauty incarnate

प्रेमप्रकर्षात्मिका भक्तिः = प्रेम्णः + प्रकर्षः + आत्मिका + भक्तिः – = love + intense + soul + devotion = devotion which emanates from intense love

नि:श्रमम् एव = no effort at all = effortlessly

विश्वपुरुषैः  = विश्वः च सः पुरुषः = by all human beings

लभ्या – is attainable

रमावल्लभ् = रमायाः वल्लभः = O Consort of Lakshmi!

Narayaneeyam – Dasakam 2 – Sloka 6 – A thing of beauty is a joy forever

Lord Krishna’s beauty is beyond the imagination, infact all beauty arises from him only. As his name Krishna means ‘all attractive’ – means his beauty enchants everyone. In front of the beauty of Krishna everything fades and pales . Even the beauty we find in the world is only a spark of the transcendental captivating beauty of Lord Krishna , then how beautiful He, the source of all beauty will be . No wonder, the devotees who visit Guruvayur and see Him are in a state of Bliss and experience horripilation, says Bhattathri in this Sloka.

Audio Link

https://www.dropbox.com/s/dcekyjy56erscfx/Verse%202.6.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Verse

एवम्भूतमनोज्ञतानवसुधानिष्यन्दसन्दोहनं
त्वद्रूपं परचिद्रसायनमयं चेतोहरं शृण्वताम्
सद्यः प्रेरयते मतिं मदयते रोमाञ्चयत्यङ्गकं
व्यासिञ्चत्यपि शीतबाष्पविसरैरानन्दमूर्च्छोद्भवैः ॥६॥

English Transliteration

evaM bhuuta manOj~nataa navasudhaa niShyanda sandOhanaM

tvadruupaM parachidrasaayanamayaM chetOharaM shR^iNvataam |

sadyaH perarayate matiM madayate rOmaa~nchayatyangakaM

vyaasi~nchatyapi shiitabaaShpa visarairaanandamuurChOdbhavaiH ||6

Tamil Transliteration

ஏவம் பூ₄தமநோஜ்ஞதாநவஸுதா₄நிஷ்யந்த₃ஸந்தோ₃ஹநம்

த்வத்₃ரூபம் பரசித்₃ரஸாயநமயம் சேதோஹரம் ஶ்ருண்வதாம் |

ஸத்₃ய: ப்ரேரயதே மதிம் மத₃யதே ரோமாஞ்சயத்யங்க₃கம்

வ்யாஸிஞ்சத்யபி ஶீதவாஷ்பவிஸரைராநந்த₃மூர்சோ₂த்₃ப₄வை: || 6||

Meaning in Tamil

அமுது சொரியும் அழகுமிகு பேரின்பப்

பரம்பொருளாம் உன்னெழில் வடிவம்

அடியார்தம் மனம் கவர்ந்து மகிழ்வித்து,

ஆனந்தப் பரவசமுடன் மயிர்கூச்செரிய,

விழிதனிலே நீர்மல்கிப் பெருவெள்ளமென

அவர்தம் அங்கமெல்லாம் நனைத்தனையே,

அச்சுதனே ஆண்டவனே குருவாயூரப்பா 2.6

Meaning in English

O Lord! Thy captivating form which continuously showers pure nectar, which is itself the Supreme Bliss-Consciousness holds the minds of those who hear Thy glories. Their minds are immediately stimulated and filled with joy. They experience horripilation all over their body and are bathed in the cool tears produced from ecstasy of joy.

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

एवम्भूतमनोज्ञतानवसुधानिष्यन्दसन्दोहनम् = एवं + भूत + मनोज्ञता + नव + सुधा + निष्यन्द + सन्दोहनम् =That (Your)+form + beauty(loveliness) + fresh (pure) + nectar + streaming (constantly flowing) + bestowing

त्वद्रूपम् = त्वत् + रूपं = Your form

परचिद्रसायनमयम् = पर + चित् + रसायनमयं = supreme + consciousness + mixture (combination)

चेतोहरम् = captivating the heart

शृण्वताम् = of those who (devotedly) hear (the recitals of accounts of Thy deeds)

सद्य: प्रेरयते = instantly/immediately + raise/stimulate/excite

मतिम् मदयते =  mind + delights/rejoice/enjoy heavenly bliss = fills the mind with joy (अत्यन्तं तोषयति)

रोमाञ्चयति = thrills/goosebumps

अङ्गकम् = limbs/body = देहम्

व्यासिञ्चत्यपि = व्यासिञ्चति + अपि = bathes also (their bodies)

शीतबाष्पविसरैः = शीत + बाष् + विसरै: = cold + tears + copious quantity = with the flood of cool tears

आनन्दमूर्च्छोद्भवैः = आनन्द + मूर्च्छा + उद्भवै: = joy + excited/increased+ produced = produced from ecstasy of joy

Narayaneeyam – Daskam 2 – Sloka 5

Bhattathri continues his pun on Goddess Lakshmi by citing another reason for the “unstable” nature of Her when it comes to Her short stay at Her devotees’ place.

Audio Link

https://www.dropbox.com/s/j712bi2u5d01peu/Verse%202.5.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Verse

लक्ष्मीस्तावकरामणीयकहृतैवेयं परेष्वस्थिरेत्यस्मिन्नन्यदपि प्रमाणमधुना वक्ष्यामि लक्ष्मीपते ।

ये त्वद्ध्यानगुणानुकीर्तनरसासक्ता हि भक्ता जनास्तेष्वेषा वसति स्थिरैव दयितप्रस्तावदत्तादरा ॥५॥

English Transliteration

lakshmiistaavaka-raamaNiiyaka-hR^itaiveyaM pareShvasthiretyasminnanyadapi

pramaaNamadhunaa vakshyaami lakshmiipate |

ye tvaddhyaanaguNaanukiirtanarasaasaktaa hi bhaktaa janaasteShveShaa

vasati sthiraiva dayitaprastaavadattaadaraa ||

Tamil Transliteration

லக்ஷ்மீஸ்தாவகராமணீயகஹ்ருதைவேயம் பரேஷ்வஸ்தி₂ரே-

த்யஸ்மிந்நந்யத₃பி ப்ரமாணமது₄நா வக்ஷ்யாமி லக்ஷ்மீபதே |

யே த்வத்₃த்₄யாநகு₃ணாநுகீர்தநரஸாஸக்தா ஹி ப₄க்தா ஜநா-

ஸ்தேஷ்வேஷா வஸதி ஸ்தி₂ரைவ த₃யிதப்ரஸ்தாவத₃த்தாத₃ரா || 5||

Meaning in Tamil

உரைத்திடுவேன் இன்னுமொரு ஆதாரம்

உலகோரிடம் திருமகள் நிலையாததற்கு!

உன்னெழில் வயப்பட்டு எந்நேரமும் தன்

உயிர் நாதனின் நாமமுடன் புகழ் கேட்டு மகிழ,

உனை நாவார நாளும் பாடி துதித்து உருகிடும்

உன்னடியார் உள்ளம்தனில் உறுதியாக

உறைந்ததனாலன்றோ திருமகள்கொழுநனே !

Meaning in English

Oh Consort of Goddess Lakshmi, I will tell another reason to say,

That Goddess Lakshmi does not stay long with others,

That is because of her attractiveness to your pretty form,

For in the case of devotees of yours who are busy in meditating,

And singing about you, she is interested in hearing about,

The news of her darling and never leaves but stays with them. 2.5

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

लक्ष्मीः – Oh Goddess Lakshmi

तावकरामणीयकहृता एव इयम् – तावक-रामणीयक हृता एव = your, beauty, fascinated/captivated, only, she = being thus captivated by Thy beauty only,

इयं परेषु अस्थिरा इति – she, is (committed to be in that position), unstable, in this manner/thus = परेषु अस्थिरा इति = she is unstable with others

अस्मिन् – in this respect

अन्यत् अपि प्रमाणम् – another proof also

अधुना – now/at present

वक्ष्यामि – I will state

लक्ष्मीपते – Oh consort of Goddess Lakshmi

ये त्वद्ध्यानगुणानुकीर्तनरसासक्ताः – ये त्वत्-ध्यान-गुण-अनुकीर्तन-रस-आस्क्ताः – those, your , meditate, virtue, singing, essence, devoted/strongly attached/engrossed = those who meditate and are always engrossed in singing Thy glory

हि भक्ताः जनाः – हि भक्ताः जनाः – = certainly (with) such devotees

तेषु एषा वसति स्थिरा एव – त= in those, she, stays, permanently/stable, always = with them she stays always

दयितप्रस्तावदत्तादरा – दयित–प्रस्ताव-दत्त-आदरा = beloved, (being), a song or hymn in praise, presented, respect/reverence/honour/praise = listening attentively to the praises of her beloved Lord

Dakshinamurthy Stothram Sloka 8 – காயப் பறவையின் ஒப்பனை கலந்த உறவுகள் – Illusionary Transactions of the Self

Preamble

We saw in the introductory blog earlier that this “jivatma” which was “relation less” and who is otherwise a witness “Saakshi” becomes related due to the influence of Maya, becomes an actor and the misery starts with transactions and continues till we know our true self through “atma gnanam”. Adi Sankara outlines a few relationships in this Sloka.

Audio Link

https://www.dropbox.com/s/mnp6fmu9ps0gip3/Sloka%208%20-%20Vishwam%20Pashyati%20Kaarya.mp3?dl=0

Sanskrit Sloka

विश्वं पश्यति कार्यकारणतया स्वस्वामिसम्बन्धतः
शिष्याचार्यतया तथैव पितृपुत्राद्यात्मना भेदतः ।
स्वप्ने जाग्रति वा य एष पुरुषो मायापरिभ्रामितः
तस्मै श्रीगुरुमूर्तये नम इदं श्रीदक्षिणामूर्तये ॥८॥

Meaning in Tamil

மாயையவள் வசப்பட்டு உழலும்,

காயமுறை சீவன், கனவிலும் நனவிலும்

காரிய காரண தன்மை கொண்டு,

உடையான் உடமை எனவும்

ஆசான் சீடன் எனவும்,

அருமை தந்தை மகன் எனவும்,

பேதம் பல ஈண்டு

பாடிடுமே பல உறவு கொண்டு.

மோடம் போட்ட அப்பேதம் நீக்கி,

காயமுறை பற்றிலா அச்சீவனே

மாசிலா முழுநிறை இறையென உரை,

ஆதிஅந்தமிலா மோனநிலை ஆசானாம் அந்த அருள்மிகு

தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி பொற்பாதம் பணிந்திடுவோம்

Meaning in English

The differentiations that we see in the world as Cause and Effect, as possessor-possession, relations as the disciple & teacher, and also as father & son etc., are all differentiations within the one Ātman. In Dream or Waking state, He, the One Puruṣaḥ  is always present, and (as if) Maya wanders over Him and gives rise to all these Differentiations. Salutations to Him, the Personification of Our Inner Guru Who Awakens This Knowledge through His Profound Silence; Salutation to Sri Dakṣiṇāmurty.

Understanding the Sloka

The Role of Maya

Let us look at the third line first: य एष पुरुषो मायापरिभ्रामितः eṣa: puruṣaḥ māyā paribhrāmitaḥ;

1. It means – This ordinary person in the world; even though he may be worldly-educated; who is spiritually and scripturally-illiterate; he is māyā paribhrāmitaḥ; { माया māyā means avidya परिभ्रम Paribhrama = Moving To and Fro, Wander/drift}. மாயையவள் வசப்பட்டு உழலும்

2. This means that he is confused because of avidya and therefore instead of taking original sākṣi svarūpam as himself; he mistakes the incidental-ahaṃkāra as himself drifts into the attached-self called ahaṃkāra I; I am going to certainly become a relative individual, related to the external world; asaṃga sākṣi (the unattached witness), becomes ससंगजीवः sasaṃga jīvaḥ (attached soul); relationless pure sākṣi-I, have now drifted and fallen down to a relative samsāri-I;

3. This means that every relation is causing one form of samsāra or the other. There is no relationship which is free from problems; In fact, if there is a relationship free from problems then the end of the relationship will cause problems; If there is a relationship so beautiful and wonderful and enjoyable, even that wonderful relationship becomes a problem when the relationship has to end because of time/kala, because of prarabdhaḥ, because of any reason. Therefore, a problem free relationship is an oxymoron; it does not exist. And therefore, the sākṣi-I, who is ever free, now has fallen down to ahaṃkāra-I, with varieties of problems.

Relationship

A few empirical relationships are enumerated in the sloka i.e., कार्यकारण संबन्धः kāryakāraṇa saṃbandhaḥ; cause and effect relationship. I-as-jīvātma, the ahaṃkāra-I, am a product of my own past karma; my prarabdhaḥ karma has given me this personality; this physical, this emotional, this social personality. Therefore, I am never a free person; I am tossed up and down; by my own karma; thus I am a कार्मय kāryam; my karma becomes the kāranam for my situation.

Let us see a few of the cause & effect relationships.

  • 1. स्वस्वामिसम्बन्धतः svasvāmisambandhataḥ; स्वस्वामि (Svasvaami = Possessor and Possession & सम्बन्ध (Sambandha = Relation). That means as ahaṃkāra, I am related to several possession, as owner-owned sambandhataḥ; and ownership means, there is a yogakṣema samsāra. yogakṣema samsāra means acquisition-maintenance samsāra is there like. உடையவன் – உடமை உறவுகள்.
  • 2-3. शिष्याचार्यतया तथैव पितृपुत्राद्यात्मना भेदतः Shissya-[A]acaarya-Tayaa Tatha-Eva Pitr-Putraady[i]-Aātmanaa Bhedatah |
  • शिष्याचार्यतया śiṣyacāryatayā; means guru-śiṣya sambandhataḥ. ஆசான் – சீடன் உறவுகள்.
  • पितृपुत्राद्यात्मना pitṛ putrādyātmanā; means father son adhi etc. தந்தை – மகன் உறவுகள் (சொந்தம் எப்போதும் தொடர் கதைதான், முடிவே இல்லாதது)

So, the māyā paribhrāmitaḥ puruṣaḥ drifted and fallen down from a relationless pure sākṣi-I, to relative samsāri-I in either of the स्वप्ने जाग्रति वा Svapne Jaagrati Vaa avastha, whether it is waking state or dream state, gets into the inevitable saṃsāraḥ.

Of course we get some interval and relief in सुषुशि अवस्त suṣupti avasta, wherein we do not worry about the family members and society and other problems, and unfortunately we cannot sleep for long. The sleep is only for a few hours and older we grow, lesser the sleep also. Therefore even sleep is not a permanent solution; even death is not a permanent solution, because punarjanma brings in punaha sambandhataḥ and samsāra; And therefore this jeevathama, puruṣaḥ ha; who is really a sākṣi; that purushā, māyā paribhrāmitaḥ; as is confused because of māya.

Relationships & The Birds on a Tree – A Vedic Perspective

Talking about the relationships of the unattached witness and the attached soul, the famous two birds in one tree Sloka from the Upanishads provides the classic conceptual framework for this Sloka in Dakshinamurthy Stothram.

The Shruti, says: By Mâyâ, Siva became two birds always associated together; the One, clinging to the one unborn (Prakriti), became many as it were (vide Mundaka- Up. 3-1; Yâjniki-Upanishad 12–5).

The Mundakopanishad Sloka 3.1.1:

द्वा सुपर्णा सयुजा सखाया समानं वृक्षं परिषस्वजाते ।

तयोरन्यः पिप्पलं स्वाद्वत्त्यनश्नन्नन्यो अभिचाकशीति ॥ १ ॥

dvā suparṇā sayujā sakhāyā samānaṃ vṛkṣaṃ pariṣasvajāte |

tayoranyaḥ pippalaṃ svādvattyanaśnannanyo abhicākaśīti || 1 ||

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words – “Suparnau – two of good motion or two birds; (the “word Suparna” being used to denote birds generally); Sayujau – inseparable, constant, companions; Sakhayau – bearing the same name or having the same cause of manifestation. Being thus, they are perched on the same tree (‘same,’ because the place where they could be perceived is identical). ‘Tree’ here means ‘body;’ because of the similitude in their liability to be cut or destroyed. Parishasvajate – embraced; just as birds go to the same tree for tasting the fruits.

Two birds bound to each other in close friendship are perched on a tree. While one of the birds is busy consuming the fruits of the tree with great relish, the other seems to be in a state of detached equanimity just looking at its compatriot. The tree in this example represents the body. The bird busying itself with the material pleasures accorded by the tree is the ‘Jivātma’ (individual soul), that has an inextricable identification with the body and mind. Such an identification makes the Jivātma both the ‘karta’ (doer) and the ‘Bhokta’ (enjoyer). The observing bird on the other hand, represents the ‘Paramātma’ (the Supreme Self). The Supreme Self remains uninfluenced and untainted by any material pleasures and possessions and remains a still tranquil witness.

Adi Śankarācārya in his commentary to this sloka says – This tree as is well known has its root high up (i.e., in Brahman) and its branches (prana, etc..) downwards; it is transitory and has its source in Avyakta (maya). It is named Kshetra and in it hang the fruits of the karma of all living things. It is here that the Ātman, conditioned in the subtle body to which ignorance, desire, karma and their unmanifested tendencies cling, and Isvara are perched like birds. Of these two so perched, one, i.e., kshetrajna occupying the subtle body eats, i.e., tastes from ignorance the fruits of karma marked as happiness and misery, palatable in many and diversified modes; the other, i.e., tbe lord, eternal, pure, intelligent and free in his nature, omniscient and conditioned by maya does not eat; for, He is the director of both the eater and the thing eaten, by the fact of His mere existence as the eternal witness (of all); not tasting, he merely looks on; for, his mere witnessing is direction, as in the case of a king.”

The Way Forward

Swami Dayananda Saraswathi in his lecture says that in all but one relationship listed by Adi Sankara , the “bedha”- the difference between the Atma and the Maya influenced Jeeva continues to exist eternally irrespective of the transactions. The guru-shishya relationship even though is a cause and effect relationship is the only one which ensures that the influence of Maya is nullified and the true nature of Jeeva is revealed through the guru’s teachings. In that state, even the guru-shishya relationship withers away and so too the other relationships.

And that is perhaps why Adi Śankarācārya says, even this confused jeeva is really none other than that dakṣiṇāmūrti only and therefore he says Tasmai Shri Gurumoorthaye; To that Gurumoorthy, dakṣiṇāmūrti , my namaskaraha.

அன்பு சிவமிரண் டென்ப ரறிவிலார்

அன்பே சிவமாவ தாரு மறிகிலார்

அன்பே சிவமாவ தாரு மறிந்தபின்

அன்பே சிவமா யமர்ந்திருந் தாரே

என்ற திருமந்திரப் பண் இக்கருத்தினைப் பிரதிபலிக்கிறது.

This, in essence is the eighth Sloka.

Long distance shoot using iPhone from the balcony of my house.