Dakshinamurthy Stothram – Sloka 4 – Introduction – Part 1 – Throwing some light on “Light”! – Questions and Answers

We saw in the previous Sloka 3, the vedantic concept of conjoined existence and light in perception of objects and understood that both “being” and “knowing” are nothing but the same (tat tvam asi). In Sloka 4, Adi Sankara throws more light on the “Light”.

Questions

Before we venture into the Sloka, I am going to start this blog with three sets of questions.

Set 1

Can you see yourselves in broad day light ?

Can you see your friend in a crowd in the park in the day light ?

Set 2

Can you see yourselves in a pitch dark room ?

Can you see your friend in the same pitch dark room?

Set 3

Do you need a torch to see Sun in the daytime.

Can you see the stars and constellations on a clear night?

Answers

These are very simple and innocuous questions. Answering these shouldn’t pose difficulties.

Set 1

Yes. I can see myself in broad light.

Yes. I searched and can see my friend in a crowd in the park.

Set 2

No. I cant see myself physically but I know that I am there.

No. I can’t see my friend in the pitch dark room. I need light.

Set 3

I don’t need a torch to see the Sun in daylight. It is all powerful.

Yes. I am able to see stars and constellations on a clear night.

Explanatory Notes for the answers

Now let us amplify the answers given.

Set 1

Suppose if I ask whether you have seen your friend in the crowd, you will have to look around to see whether he has come or not; which means that a process is required. But when I ask you the question, are you there, you do not take any time, or even thinking. Even before the process of thinking starts, “I am here” is an evident fact.

SET 2

I don’t need a light to say that I am inside a dark room since I know that I am there. It is self evident as indicated above. But I need a process and a light to see anyone else.

SET 3

I don’t need an external light to see the Sun in daylight. It is the most powerful light source. It is a “maha deepam”. But the strange fact is I can see the stars which are millions of miles away in the sky on a clear night. Perhaps I have a powerful source of light inside me (a maha deepam) that helps me to see the stars. Maybe ! I don’t know.

Preamble to the Vedic Philosophy behind the “Light”

Apparently in these three sets of questions and answers, the underlying focus is on light and sight. Let us now throw some light on this light.

An object in the world becomes known at a particular time by our special effort. If I have to see my friend in a crowd at the park, it is an event in space and time. I have to turn in that direction and my mind should be behind the eye. Or the eyes will not see. And the light should fall on the crowd; and then a thought should take place in the mind; and that is called vritti pariṇāma, and when that takes place alone, the knowledge of my friend takes place; as an event, in the mind, because of the operation of the sense organ called eye. So, the steps involved in this light throwing process called mano vritti is as under:

1. Some object is there.

2. Light falls on it.

3. You see it through your effort with your eyes.

4. It translates that it is other than you

5. You recognize it through something.

6. It forms a wave thought

7. That gets reflected in a medium to lend existence

The process is nothing complicated. Simple. Isn’t it? But then how do you say “I am here” when you are in a pitch dark room and someone asks you “Where are you?” You even say sometimes “Don’t switch on the light. I am relaxing”. Strange ! Are you self luminous? Exactly. This is called svayam prakāśatvam of ātmā; self-evidence of ātmā; this is a very important concept in vedānta. In India we have people named as Swayam Prakash.

The core of an Individual known as ātmā is not only svayam prakāś but also a “maha deepam” – a great light.

In a lighter vein that is why if we see several Indian movies particularly the historical/mythological ones, you will see in death scenes, a light moves up from the body towards the heaven. We see obituary statements like “The light in our life has merged with the Almighty” even today.

With this introductory understanding that core of all of us viz., the inner consciousness known as the ātmā is compared to a maha deepam (the light like Sun) in, let us proceed toward our goal of understanding the Sloka 4 where Adi Sankara again comes out with simple experiments to drive home the Vedantic Concepts.

To be continued……

Arunodaya

Looking at the Sunrise with awe and reciting Aditya Hrudayam during my early morning walks has been my most enjoyable moment for the day for several years.

Nothing can be more invigorating than this particularly in this era of pandemic and lock down. The one hour that I spend in the early morning is worth the gold. That is what Aditya (Sun) seems to be telling me today morning.

Watch Him talk to me today, Sunday the 16th Morning between 0545 and 0645 Hrs in Bangalore

https://www.dropbox.com/s/782xv6yj94n67mq/Arunodaya%20.MOV?dl=0

Music Courtesy – Music Today Album Arunodayam – Bowli Raga

The Fairy “I” can’t fathom – She, the Big M

“It is an oft-quoted saying that philosophy begins in wonder. The mystery of the world with all its changes strikes the reflective temper. The Vedic philosophy grew out of a demand for the explanation of actual experience. Philosophy bade men seek beneath all change, which is the law of life, unity and persistency. All things are passing; what remains? Anything or nothing? The Vedic age raised the problem of philosophy and offered a solution. It was then that attempts to reflect upon the world of experience were made for the first time. When we reflect upon the world of experience, the word illusion (“Maya”) comes to the foreground.

The doctrine of Maya is consideredby many thinkers,to be an integral part of the Vedanta philosophy. The Vedanta system is supposed to be an acosmic pantheism, holding that the Absolute called Brahman alone is real and the finite manifestations are illusory. There is one absolute undifferentiated reality, the nature of which is constitutedby knowledge. The entire empirical world, with its distinction of finite minds and the objects of their thought,is an illusion. Subjects and objects are like the fleeting images which encompass the dreaming soul and melt away into nothingness at the momentof waking.

The term Maya signifies the illusory character of the finite world.” ( Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, Eminent Indian Philosopher)

Wait a minute; does this statement strike a chord in us – in today’s COVID-19 environment?

It looks like it happened “just recently”. A year and a quarter has passed since the virus silently spread across the world. Millions of lives lost. Inter and intra relationships & transactions among and within individuals and society have been completely turned around leaving one to wonder whether it is all a dream and whether we all are waking up to a new state after a deep sleep. Yes, all the three basic states of our Consciousness (awake, dream and deep sleep) have come to play in this crucial time in each one of us thanks to Maya (She, The Big M,I call it).

Well, to me it appears like that; so I woke up after my second vaccination, with a new found determination to explore Maya and her origin, the Vedanta. True to its nature, the Big M treated me like a kid (which I am) and presented me with an exclusive giant Mall with infinite toy stores. No wonder I am lost. Not to disappoint me, the Big M presented me with three books titled Tattva Bodha, Isavasya Upanishad and Dakshinamurthy Stothram.

The last 2 weeks have been fairly severe in terms of the weather; temperatures dropping to single digits (deg F) and snow storms lashing cities forcing kids like me to seek the comfort of our cozy home – that means the Big M has given me an opportunity to deep dive into the books that I got from Her. Each Sloka (Verse) and each word in the three books, is sending me into “space walks” in search of the Self . Holding each Sloka as my life line, I venture into the space of contemplation. Whenever I return back to my home base, I stare through the window at the vast white carpet of snow all around and tried to relate my space walk with the “ground reality”.

In one such “stare” in the early morning after I went on my 18th space walk (corresponding to the 18th Sloka of the Isavasya Upanishad) , the day after the snow storm I did have a direct response from the principal character of that Sloka. Here is that Sloka, its meaning in English and Tamil and the response of the character .

A word of caution here – Millions of pages have been written over centuries by “Subject” – “Matter” – Specialists to provide commentaries for the Slokas in these books. Summing them up into few lines is absolutely immature and childish; yet as a child I have started by scribblings on Vedanta. Pardon me for that.

But Children have the right to enquire and ask questions. The child I am, I am asking questions to myself with the fond hope that someday I will find answers.

The Sloka

अग्ने नय सुपथा राये अस्मान्विश्वानि देव वयुनानि विद्वान् ।

युयोध्यस्मज्जुहुराणमेनो भूयिष्ठां ते नम उक्तिं विधेम ॥ १८ ॥

English Transliteration

agne naya supathā rāye asmānviśvāni deva vayunāni vidvān |

yuyodhyasmajjuhurāṇameno bhūyiṣṭhāṃ te nama uktiṃ vidhema || 18 ||

Meaning in Tamil

அழல் தெய்வமே ! புரிவினை யாவுமறிந்திட்டுயாம்

நல்வினைப் பயனை துய்த்திட நல்வழியே நடத்திடு

உள் உறை தீவினை வஞ்சம்தனை விடுத்திடு

அளித்திட்டேன் பக்தியுடன் எம் வணங்குதலை

Meaning in English

O god of fire, lead us by the good path

To eternal joy. You know all our deeds.

Deliver us from evil, we who bow

And pray again and again.

(From The Upanishads by Eknath Easwaran)

The response

Music Courtesy: Jagruthi an awakening by Music India. (No commercial interests for me).

Welcome 2021

Happy New Year

Resilience is the process of adapting oneself in the face of adversity. Our lives in 2020 is an example. As we step into the New Year 2021, nothing better than to remind ourselves of our continued commitment to this process. The first to help us in this process is none other than Aditya. Therefore I commence my blogging this year in 2021 with a rededication of my earlier prayer to Aditya in an AV format.

Aditya Hrudayam – ஆதவன் இதயம் – தமிழாக்கம்

Aditya Hridayam Verses 28-31

in the concluding phase of Aditya Hridayam, the impact that the Sun had on a tired and weary Rama is brought out. While these verses might sound “unrealistic” to some of the present time “rational thinking” personnel, the fact that Sun has a refreshing effect on life and rejuvenates millions of living beings into action is undeniable.

Verse 28

एतच्छ्रुत्वा महातेजाः नष्टशोकोऽभवत्तदा

धारयामास सुप्रीतो राघवः प्रयतात्मवान् ॥२८॥

– EtacchrutvA mahAtEjA naShTashOkO$bhavattadA

– dhArayAmAsa suprItO rAghava: prayatAtmavAn

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

tadA = then

mahAtEjA = one with tremendous energy

Etat = this

shrutvA = having heard

naShTashOka: = losing grief, cheered up

abhavat = became [Simple Past, la~Ng lakAra:]

suprIta: = pleased, gladdened

prayatAtmavAn = one with a pious-minded, subdued mind

rAghava: = of the Raghu dynasty (“Rama” here)

dhArayAmAsa = held, retained [Past Perfect, lit lakAra:]

Meaning of the Verse

On hearing this advice, Raghava, who is endowed

with extraordinary energy, found his grief dispelled

immediately. Feeling greatly delighted, he, who has a

subdued mind, retained (Aditya Hridayam) in his memory.

Meaning in Tamil

ஆதவனின் புகழ் செவிமடுத்து சோர்வு நீர்ந்து

புதுப்பொலிவு கொண்டான் பேரொளியுடன்

மாவீரன் ராகவன் மனதில் நிறுத்தி மறைதனை

————————————————————

Verse 29

आदित्यं प्रेक्ष्य जप्त्वा तु परं हर्षमवाप्तवान्

त्रिराचम्य शुचिर्भूत्वा धनुरादाय वीर्यवान् ॥२९॥

– Adityam prEkshya japtvA tu param harShamavAptavAn

– trirAcamya shucirbhUtvA dhanurAdAya vIryavAn

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

Adityam = Surya (in subject form)

prEkshya = on looking/gazing at

japtvA = having recited

param = high, excellent

harSha: = joy, delight, satisfaction

avAptavAn = received, experienced

tri: = three times

Acamya = having sipped

shuci: = purity; cleansed, hallowed state

bhUtvA = having become

vIryavAn = brave one

dhanu: = bow [from ‘dhanus’]

AdAya = having taken [indeclinable]

Meaning of the Verse

Gazing at Surya, and reciting the hymn, Rama

experienced supreme joy. Purifying himself by

performing “Acamanam” (Sipping water thrice with

the name of the Lord in one’s lips), Rama took up his bow.

Meaning in Tamil

ஒருமையுடன் உதயவனை உற்றுநோக்கி

வெறுமைநீக்கி ஒப்புயர்வற்ற மகிழ்வுடனே

ஆதவனை மனதினில் நிலை நிறுத்தி

அருந்தினான் புனிதநீரதனை மும்முறை

அடைந்திட்டான் ராமன் ஆற்றல்மிகு தன் வளைவில்தனை

——————————————————————-

Verse 30

रावणं प्रेक्ष्य हृष्टात्मा युद्धाय समुपागमत्

सर्वयत्नेन महता वधे तस्य धृतोऽभवत् ॥३०॥

– rAvaNam prEkshya hR^iShTAtmA yuddhAya samupAgamat

– sarvayatnEna mahatA vadhE tasya dhR^itO$bhavat

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

hR^iShTAtmA = pleased, glad person [hR^iSh, 4P, harShati, hR^iShTa]

rAvaNam prEkshya = seeing/facing Ravana

yuddha: = battle/combat; yuddhAya = for combat

samupAgamat = approached near, advanced

mahatA = with greatness [mahAn yuddha:; mahatI vEdanA]

yatna: = effort, attempt; yatnEna = with effort

tasya = his (Ravana’s)

vadha: = killing, murder; vadhE = in the slaughter, killing

dhR^ita: = resolved, firm, determined one

abhavat = became [Simple Past]

Meaning of the Verse

Fixing his eyes on Ravana, a delighted Rama advanced for

the combat; He became resolved in Ravana’s killing with an

intense all-out effort.

Meaning in Tamil

முழுமையுடன் போர் புரிந்து உயிர்வதைக்கும் உறுதியுடன்

முன்சென்றான் ராவணணை எதிர் நோக்கி மகிழ்மிகு ராமன்

———————————————————-

Verse 31

अथ रविरवदन्निरीक्ष्य रामं मुदितमनाः परमं प्रहृष्यमाणः

निशिचरपतिसंक्षयं विदित्वा सुरगणमध्यगतो वचस्त्वरेति ॥३१॥

– atha raviravadan nirIkshya rAmam

– muditamanA: paramam prahR^iShyamANa:

– nishicarapatisankshayam viditvA

– suragaNamadhyagatO vacastvarEti

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

atha = here; hence begins (to indicate auspiciousness) [indeclinable]

muditamanA: = delighted mind

paramam = highest, chief

prahR^iShyamANa: = delighted one

ravi: = Aditya

nishicarapati: = lord of the night-stalkers (Ravana here)

viditvA = on observing

suragaNa: = the group of Devas

madhyagata: = on going amidst

rAmam nirIkshya = seeing/facing Rama

avadat = said (simple past)

vaca: = speech/word [from vacas; used in subject form here]

tvara = (you) hurry; make haste

iti = as/that [to follow a quote]

Meaning of the Verse

Then, delighted in mind, supremely exhilarated Aditya,

on observing Ravana’s destruction, amidst the assembly

of the Devas, seeing Rama, said “Make Haste”.

Meaning in Tamil

கதிரவன் களிமிகு முழுமனமகிழ்வுடன்

எதிரியின் வதம் எதிர்பார்த்து ராமனிடம்

விரைந்திடுவாய் வீழ்த்திடு ராவணன்தனையென

வின்னவர் புடைசூழ விழைத்திட்டான ஆதவன்

Aditya Hridayam Verses 16-21

Starting from the end of Verse 15, Sage Agasthya brings out the salutory tone (nama:) and continues until the 21st verse, showering the Lord Sun (sUryA) with more positive epithets (அடைமொழி) such as victory (jaya), happiness (Bhadra) etc

Verse 16

नमः पूर्वाय गिरये पश्चिमायाद्रये नमः

ज्योतिर्गणानां पतये दिनाधिपतये नमः ॥१६॥

nama: pUrvAya girayE pashcimAyAdrayEnnama:

jyOtirgaNAnAm patayE dinAdipatayE nama:

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

nama: = salutations

pUrva = eastern

giri: = mountain

pashcima = western

adri: = mountain

jyOti: = light

gaNa: = collection, group

jyOtirgaNa: = collection of stellar bodies

pati: = ruler, leader

dina = day

adhipati: = ruler, Lord

Meaning of the Verse

Salutations be to the eastern and western mountains, to

the Lord of the celestial bodies, to the Lord of the day

Meaning in Tamil

காலையில் உதிக்கும் கீழ்மலையே போற்றி

மாலையில் சாயும் மேல்மலையே போற்றி

ஜோதியுள் விண்மண்டல வேந்தனே போற்றி

பகலுக்குத் தலையான பரமனே போற்றி

——————————————————————

Verse 17

जयाय जयभद्राय हर्यश्वाय नमो नमः

नमो नमस्सहस्रांशो आदित्याय नमो नमः ॥१७॥

jayAya jayabhadrAya haryashvAya namO nama:

namO nama: sahasrAmsha AdityAya namO nama:

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

jaya: = victory; epithet for sun

bhadra = happy; auspicious

jayabhadra: = happiness from victory

hari = green; greenish-yellow

ashva: = horse

nama: = salutation

sahasra = thousand; large number

amsha: = part, portion [amshu: = ray]

Aditya: = son of Aditi

Meaning of the Verse

Salutations be to the victor (sun), the happiness from

victory, the one with the green horses, the one with a

thousand parts/rays, the son of Aditi.

Meaning in Tamil

வெற்றியின் வடிவே போற்றி

பெற்றிடும் மகிழ்வே போற்றி

பசுமைப்பரி பூணுடையோனே போற்றி

ஆயிரம் கரமுடையோனே போற்றி

வான்அன்னை அதிதியின் மகனே போற்றி

—————————————————————-

Verse 18

नम उग्राय वीराय सारङ्गाय नमो नमः

नमः पद्मप्रबोधाय मार्तण्डाय नमो नमः ॥१८॥

nama ugrAya vIrAya sAra.NgAya namOnnama:

nama: padmaprabOdhAya mArtaNDAya namOnnama:

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

nama: = salutations

ugra: = ferocious, powerful; intensely hot;

(also a name of Shiva)

vIra: = powerful one; hero

sAra.Nga: = has ~30 meanings; here, it is “light”;

(primarily used to refer to “spotted deer”)

padmaprabOdha: = awakening of the lotus, stimulating

the expansion, blooming of a lotus

mArtaNDa: = sun

Meaning of the Verse

Salutations be to the fearful, powerful sun, who is

the awakener of the lotus.

Meaning in Tamil

அச்சம்தரும் ஆதவனே போற்றி

அனைத்தும் வெல்லும் அதிவீரனே போற்றி

வண்ண ஒளியோனே போற்றி

ஆம்பல் மலர அருள்புரிவோனே போற்றி

ஆதவ அய்யனே போற்றி போற்றி

———————————————————————-

Verse 19

ब्रह्मेशानाच्युतेशाय सूर्यादित्यवर्चसे

भास्वते सर्वभक्षाय रौद्राय वपुषे नमः ॥१९॥

brahmEshAnAcyutEshAya sUryAyAditya varcasE

bhAsvatE sarva bhakshAya rOudrAya vapuShE nama:

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

brahma: = Brahma

IshAna: = Shiva; ruler, lord

acyuta: = Vishnu

Isha: = ruler; Shiva

sUrya: = sun

Aditya: = sun, son of Aditi

varca: = brilliance, vigor, splendor

bhAsvat = luminous, resplendent

sarva = all

bhaksha: = consumer, devourer

rOudra: = like Rudra; worshipper of Rudra; fierce one

vapuSh = body; handsome

Meaning of the Verse

Salutations be to the ruler of Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu,

the Sun, the brilliance in Him, the devourer of all, and

the one appearing to take the form of Rudra

Meaning in Tamil

அயனாகி அனந்தனாகி ஆதியோகியாகி

அதிதியின் புதல்வனாகி ஆற்றல் நிறையோனாகி

சுடரொளி வீசீ அனைத்தும் நுகர்வோனாகி

அஞ்சுவரு தோற்றமுடை அழகோனே போற்றி

—————————————————————————

Verse 20

तमोघ्नाय हिमघ्नाय शत्रुघ्नायामितात्मने

कृतघ्नघ्नाय देवाय ज्योतिषां पतये नमः ॥२०॥

tamOghnAya himaghnAya shatrughnAyAmitAtmanE

kRtaghnahanAya dEvAya jyOtiShAm patayEnnama:

(Also kRtaghnaghnAya…)

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

tama: = darkness

ghna = killing, removing; curing

himam = coldness, frost

shatrughna: = destroyer of enemies

amitAtman = immeasurable form

krutaghna = ungrateful

hana: = destroy

[ghna is also “to destroy”, so “kRtaghna-ghnAya” and

“kRtaghna-hanAya” mean the same]

dEva: = Deva

jyOtis = heavenly body

jyOtiShAm = of heavenly bodies

pati: = ruler, Lord

nama: = salutations

Meaning of the Verse

Salutations be to He who is the dispeller of darkness,

destroyer of cold and enemies, who has an immeasurable

form, is a destroyer of the ingratiates, the Deva who

is the ruler of the heavenly bodies

Meaning in Tamil

காரிருள் கடுங்குளிர் கொடும்பகை ஒழி அளவிலா ஆதவனே

நன்றிக்கேடழி தேவனே விண்ணோர் தலையனே போற்றி

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Verse 21

तप्तचामीकराभाय वह्नये विश्वकर्मणे

नमस्तमोऽभिनिघ्नाय रुचये लोकसाक्षिणे ॥२१॥

taptacAmIkarAbhAya harayE vahnaye vishva karmaNE

namastamO$bhinighnAya rucayE lOkasAkshiNE

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

tapta = heated, burnt; melting

cAmIkaram = gold

AbhAs = lustre, splendor

taptacAmIkarAbha: = one with lustre of refined gold

vahnaye – fire

hari: = captivating; Vishnu; destroying

vishva karmaN = creator of the universe

nama: = salutations

tama: = darkness

abhinighna: = destroyer

ruci: = light, brightness; taste; appearance

lOka = world; cosmos

sAkshin = witness

Meaning of the Verse

Salutations be to He who shines like molten gold, who is

captivating and the architect of the universe, who removes

darkness, is the essense of lustre and is the cosmic witness

Meaning in Tamil

உருக்கிய பொன்மிளிர் ஒளியோனே

உன்னழலால் இவ்வுலகம் வடிப்போனே

உலகிருள் களைவோனே அழகொளிக்கதிரோனேஇவ்

இயலுலக வாழ்வின் சான்றுரையோனே போற்றி

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Aditya Hridayam Verse 11-15

Verse 11

हरिदश्वस्सहस्रार्चिस्सप्तसप्तिर्मरीचिमान् ।
तिमिरोन्मथनश्शम्भुस्त्वष्टा मार्ताण्ड अंशुमान् ॥११॥


Harid-Ashvas-Sahasra-Arcis-Sapta-Saptir-Mariicimaan |
Timiro[a-U]nmathanash-Shambhus-Tvassttaa Maartaanndda Amshumaan ||11||

Meaning of Sanskrit Words

harita = of green color

ashva: = horse

(haridashva: = He who has green horses)

sahasra = thousand (also to mean ‘large numbers’)

arci: = ray of the sun

(sahasrArci: = having massive number of rays)

sapta = seven

sapti: = horse

marIci: = ray of the sun

marIcimAn = one who is filled with rays

timira: = darkness

unmathana: = tearing/shaking off

(timirOnmathana: = remover of darkness)

shambhu: = auspiciousness

tvaShTA = (literally) to peel, make thin, remove

(here, decrease of sufferings)

aNda: = egg (here, primordial egg)

mArtaNda: = mArta aNda: = egg infused with mortality/life

anshu: = ray

anshumAn = one with rays

Meaning of the Verse

He is omnipresent who pervades all with His thousands of rays (that symbolize his hands).

He rides a chariot with seven green horses (symbolizing the sense organs). He is the dispeller of darkness (ignorance). He is the incarnation of auspiciousness and mitigator of ills, and is

the source of life in the form of a mundane cosmic egg

Meaning in Tamil

பசுமைநிறை புரவிஏழுபூண் ரதமேறி

ஆயிரம் கரங்கள் நீட்டி துயர் நீக்கி

உலகிருள் நீக்கி மங்கள திருஉருவாகி

உயிர்மூலமெனும் இம்மை அண்டமாகி

உலகாள்வான் எங்கும் நிறை ஆதவன்

Here is the link to the incident in Mahabharat where Lord Karna offers prayers to the Sun God before removing his Kavach (inborn Protective Armor). The lyrics & picturisation of this song exactly describes this para in Tamil

https://youtu.be/sGLw1FRIStQ

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Verse 12

हिरण्यगर्भश्शिशिरस्तपनो भास्करो रविः

अग्निगर्भोऽदितेः पुत्रः शङ्खश्शिशिरनाशनः ॥१२॥

hiraNyagarbha: shishirastapanO bhAskarO ravi:

agnigarbhO aditE: putra: sha.Nkha shishiranAshana:

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

hiraNyam = gold

garbha: = born from

shishira: = cold

tapana: = heat; sun

bhAs = light, brightness; bhAskara: = the one causing it; sun

ravi: = sun

agnigarbha: = pregnant with fire

aditi: = free, boundless; here, refers to Aditi, the mother of

the devAs; hence the sun is also called Adityaa

putra: = son

sha.Nkha: = conch; drum; here, precious?

shishiranAshana: = remover of cold

Meaning of the Verse

The Sun is the one born from the golden egg, the remover of darkness, bearer of fire, son of Aditi, and the destroyer of cold.

Meaning in Tamil

பொன் அண்டப்பிறப்போன் பனித்திவலைவிலக்கி வெப்பஒளிக்கதிராவான்

அழற்பிழம்போன் அதிதிபுதல்வன் சங்கமுழங்கி குளிரதனை விரட்டிடுவான்

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Verse 13

व्योमनाथस्तमोभेदी ऋग्यजुस्सामपारगः

घनवृष्टिरपां मित्रो विन्ध्यवीथीप्लवङ्गमः ॥१३॥

vyOmanAtha: tama: bhEdI ruk yaju: sAmapAraga:

ghanavruShTirapAm mitrO vindhya vIthI plavangama:

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

vyOma: = sky, atmosphere

nAtha: = ruler

tama: = darkness

bhEdI = destruction, annihilation [bhEdiram = thunderbolt]

rugyajussAmapAraga: = master of Rig, Yajur and Sama Vedas

ghana = dense, firm, heavy

vruShTi: = rain [vruShTibhU: = frog]

apAm = water

vindhya = Vindhya mountains (deccan)

vIthI = road, way (vIthi: also)

plava = swimming, floating, jumping

plava.Ngama: = coarsing, movement [also means a monkey, frog]

Meaning of the Verse

He is the ruler of the skies, remover of darkness, master of the three Vedas (Rig, Yajur and Sama), from whom come heavy showers of water, and who coarses in his way across the Vindhya mountains

Meaning in Tamil

இருளகற்றும் வானாளோன் மும்மறை வித்தகன் கனமழை

நீர்பொழியக் காரணமாவான் விந்தியமலைவீதி உலாவோன்

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Verse 14

आतपी मण्डली मृत्युः पिङ्गलस्सर्वतापनः

कविर्विश्वो महातेजाः रक्तस्सर्वभवोद्भवः ॥१४॥

AtapI maNDalI mrutyu: pi.Ngala: sarvatApana:

kavirvishvO mahAtEjA raktassarvabhavOdbhava:

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

AtapI = heating; causing pain

maNDalI = round, circular

mrutyu: = death

pi.Ngala: = yellowish, brownish “tawny” color

sarvatApana: = burning/distressing everything

kavi: = wise man, sage; poet

vishva: = universal; soul

mahAtEjA = great lustre, brilliance

rakta: = red

sarvabhava: = everything that exists

udbhava: = creator

Meaning of the Verse

He is heat-causing, circular, death, tawny, and all destroying. He is the all-knowing, extremely shining, red colored, creator of everything that exists.

Meaning in Tamil

மாள் விளை வெப்பமிகு கோள்வீதியுடை பழு

மஞ்சள் நிற அனைத்தெரிக்கும் ஆற்றலுடையான்

உலகாளும் மெய்யறியோன் மாகதிரொளிச்சிவந்தோன்

உளயாவும் உயிரினங்களனைத்தும் படைவினையான்

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Verse 15

नक्षत्रग्रहताराणामधिपो विश्वभावनः

तेजसामपि तेजस्वी द्वादशात्मन्नमोऽस्तु ते ॥१५॥

nakshatra grahatArANAm adhipO vishvabhAvana:

tejasAm api tejasvI dvAdashAtmannamOstutE

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

nakshatram = star; constellation

graha: = planet (as understood in those times); seize, grab

tArA = star

…tArANAm = Among the stars, planets and constellations

adhipa: = ruler, king [= adhipati:]

vishva: = soul; universal [vishvam = world; Vishnu]

bhAvana: = creator

tEjas = brilliance; sharpness; prowess

dvAdasha = twelve (dvi adika dasha)

Atman = inner form

nama: = salutations

astu = let it be

tE = to you (“tubhyam” is also valid)

Meaning of the Verse

He is the controller of stars, constellations and planets,
the creator of everything that exists, most brilliant among
everything splendid. Oh God, who appears in twelveforms (the months of the yr), all my salutations be to you.

In other words, He is the presiding Deity of Constellations (Nakshatras), Planets(Graha) and Stars (Tara), and conceives the whole Universe in his mind (i.e. his scope of influence is universal). He has more Energy of Splendour (Tejas) than even the most Energetic; Salutations to You who has twelve Atmans (i.e. 12 Adityas – Varuna, Mitra, Aryama, Bhaga, Amshuman, Dhata, Parjamya, Tvashtha, Vishnu, Pushya, Vivasvan),

Meaning in Tamil

விண்மண்டலம் கோள் விண்மீன் அனைத்திற்கும் முதல்வோன்

அவன் விளைசெயலன்றோ புவிவிண் அடங்கும் இப்பிரபஞ்சம்

ஒளிமயத்துஒளிமயமாய் பன்னிரு இறைவடிவாய் பரஞ்ஜோதியாய்

படர்ந்திருக்கும் பரம்பொருளான பகலவனடி யான் பணிந்தேன்

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Aditya Hridayam Verse 7-10

Verse 7

सर्वदेवात्मको ह्येषः तेजस्वी रश्मिभावनः

एष देवासुरगणान् लोकान् पाति गभस्तिभिः ॥७॥

sarvadevAtmakO hyESha tEjasvI rashmibhAvana:

ESha devAsuragaNAn lokAn pAti gabhastibhi:

Meaning of the Sanskrit words

sarva deva Atmaka: = all the devAs’ embodiment/real nature/form

hi ESha: = indeed, this [sUryA]

tEjasvI = bright, sharp

rashmi bhAvana: = creator/cause of His rays

ESha: = this [AdityA]

devA asura = devAs and asurAs

gaNa: = group/collection [gaNA: = plural; gaNAn = used in object sense]

lokAn = all the worlds [used in an object form here]

pAti = sustains/takes care [pAti: = master, husband; pAlanam = take care

comes from this root]

gabhasti: = rays/beams of light [gabhastibhi: = by His rays]

Meaning of the Verse

Indeed, He is the real form (embodiment) of all devAs, bright, and creator of His rays.

He sustains the groups of devAs and asurAs and their worlds by His rays.

Meaning in Tamil

கருத்துருவமன்றோ ஆதவன் அனைத்து தேவரினத்தின்

கதிரொளி படைத்துக்காப்பான் தேவ அசுர கணங்களை

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Verse 8

एष ब्रह्मा विष्णुश्च शिवः स्कन्दः प्रजापतिः

माहेन्द्रो धनदः कालो यमस्सोमो ह्यपां पतिः ॥८॥

ESha: brahmA ca vishnushca shiva: skanda: prajApati:

mahEndrO dhanada: kAlO yama: sOmO hyapAm pati:

Meaning of the Sanskrit words

ESha: = He

brahmA ca vishnu: ca shiva: ca = the trinity

skanda: = shivA’s son

prajApati: = Lord of all creatures

mahA indra: = great Indra (Lord of Celestial Beings)

dhanada: = Kubera (Lord of Wealth)

kAla: = Lord of Time

yama: = Lord of Death

soma: = moon, nourisher (Moon God)

hi = indeed

apAm pati: = Varuna (Lord of Waters)

Meaning of the Verse

He is indeed Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Skanda, Prajaapati, Indra, Kubera,

Kaala, Yamaa, Soma, and Varuna.

Meaning in Tamil

அயனும் மாயவனும் அழழேந்தியும் அவனே

அறுமுகனும் ஆக்குபவனும் அவனே

காலமும் காலனும் அவனே

இந்திரனும் சந்திரனும் அவனே

பொன்னரசனும் பொழிமழையரசனும் அவனே

(அறிந்திடுவாய் இராமா)

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Verse 9

पितरो वसवस्साध्याः ह्यश्विनौ मरुतो मनुः

वायुर्वह्निः प्रजाप्राणा ऋतुकर्ता प्रभाकरः ॥९॥

pitarO vasava: sAdhyA hi ashvinOu marutO manu:

vAyu: vahni: prajAprANa R^itukartA prabhAkara:

Meaning of the Sanskrit words

pitara: = revered spirit of dead/manes

vasava: = (8) gods who attend to indrA [vasu: – singular] 8 Vasus

sAdhyA: = (12) yogIs

hi = indeed

ashvinOu = (2) physicians in devaloka: ( Ashwini kumaras)

maruta: = (49) more gods

manu: = another god

vAyu: = wind god

vahni: = agni, fire-god

prajAprANa = air that sustains life

R^itukartA = creator of seasons

prabhAkara: = producer of light

Meaning of the Verse

Indeed He is the Pitrs, Vasus, Sadhyas, Ashwins,

Maruts, Manu, Vayu, Agni, life-breath, source of

seasons and light in the universe.

Meaning in Tamil

முன்னோரும் முனியோரும் இறையோரும் இறையோரின்

மருத்துவரும் இயற்கையின் ஐம்புலன்களும் அவனே

பருவ காலங்களும் பகலொளி படைப்போனும் அவனே

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Verse 10

आदित्यः सविता सूर्यः खगः पूषा गभस्तिमान्

सुवर्णसदृशो भानुर्हिरण्यरेतो दिवाकरः ॥१०॥

Aditya: savitA sUrya: khaga: pUShA gabhastimAn

suvarNasadrushO bhAnur hirenyaretaa divAkara:

Meaning of the Sanskrit words

Aditya: = son of aditi [srimad bhAgavatam has great

details on lineages]

savitA = creator/generator/inspirer (of senses)

sUrya: = sun

khaga: = moving/flying in the air; here it is the sun;

it is also used to mean “bird”

pUShA = nourisher [pUSh dhAtu has the meanings of

nourish, to grow, increase; pOShanam is a noun

form]

gabhastimAn = owner of rays of light

suvarNasadrusha: = like (sadrusha:) pearls (suvarNa:)

[golden, sparkling]

bhAnu: = brilliant

Hirenyareta = fertility seed (rEtA) of the world (vishva)

divAkara: = maker (-Akara:) of days (diva:)

Meaning of the Verse

He is the son of Aditi, the inspirer/creator of senses, the sun,

the traveller in the heavens, sustainer, possessor of

rays, golden, brilliant, and the cause of the universe

and creator of day.

Meaning in Tamil

புலன் ஐந்தும் ஊக்குவிப்போன் அதிதிஅன்னையின் புதல்வன் அவன்

வான் உலவிப்பேணி உலகூட்டமளித் திகழொளிக்கதிரவன் அவன்

பொன் ஒளியினால் இயலுலகுக்கு கருவான வித்தவன் பகலவன் அவன்

Aditya Hridayam Verses 4-6

Verse 4

आदित्यहृदयं पुण्यं सर्वशत्रुविनाशनम्

जयावहं जपेन्नित्यमक्षय्यं परमं शिवम् ॥४॥

Aaditya-Hrdayam Punnyam Sarva-Shatru-Vinaashanam |

Jaya-[A]avaham Japen-Nityam-Akssayyam Paramam Shivam ||4||

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

AdityahR^idayam = this is the first and only time the name of this shlokam is mentioned by agastyA. It literally means the “Heart of sUryabhagavAn”

pUNyam = sacred (adjective for AH)

sarva = all

shatru = enemies [in the third, agastyA calls the same “sarvAn arIn”]

vinAshanam = destruction

jaya = victory

Avaham = giving, bestowing, producing, bringing forth

[several mantrAs will invoke a deity and say “… AvAhayAmi”; bhayAvahaH =producing fear; kleshAvahaH = causing pain/distress]

japa: = chanting prayers [japet = should chant/recite (preranA/request

form)]

nityam = daily/forever/always

akshayyam = eternal

paramam = highest, greatest [superlative]

shivam = prosperity, well-being, happiness, blessed

Meaning of the Verse

The Holy Aditya Hridayam gives victory, eternal and greatly blessed and is the destroyer of enemies. One should chant it always.

Meaning in Tamil

ஆதவன் புகழ் மந்திரம் புனிதம் அனத்துப்பகையழி வென்றிடும்

அனுதினம் உரைத்தல் அளிக்கும் நிலையான அதி புகழ் வளம்

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Verse 5

सर्वमङ्गलमाङ्गल्यं सर्वपापप्रणाशनम्

चिन्ताशोकप्रशमनमायुर्वर्धनमुत्तमम् ॥५॥

Sarva-Manggala-Maanggalyam Sarva-Paapa-Prannaashanam |

Cintaa-Shoka-Prashamanam-Aayur-Vardhanam-Uttamam ||5||

Meaning of the Sanskrit Words

sarva ma~ngala = of all the blessings

mAngalyam = the blessing/auspicious (it is the auspiciousness of all that is auspicious)

sarva pApa = of all sins

praNAshanam = annihilation/destruction [the root “nAsha:” gives rise to several things that have the “perishable” flavor – nAshanam, vinAshanam, nAshtA, nAshTika: (someone who lost

something)]

cintA = anxiety/fear [it is literally “thought”/”worry”]

shOka = sadness/grief

prashama: = calmness/pacification (indicates here – “cooling down” or removing sadness and anxiety]

Ayu: = lifespan

vardhanam = increasing/enlarging

uttamam = most appropriate/best/ultimate

Meaning of the Verse

[Aditya Hridayam] is the best blessing of all blessings, the destroyer of

all sins, and causes the removal of anxiety, grief and most suitable for

facilitating logevity.

Meaning in Tamil

கதிரவனொளி நல்வாழ்விற்கு நல்வாழ்வாய் சகலபாவ வினைகளழிக்கும்

பதற்றமிகு கவலை நீக்கி அமைதியுடன் நீடூழி வாழ வழிவகுத்திடுமன்றோ

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Verse 6

रश्मिमन्तं समुद्यन्तं देवासुरनमस्कृतम्

पूजयस्व विवस्वन्तं भास्करं भुवनेश्वरम् ॥६॥

Rashmimantam Samudyantam Deva-Asura-Namaskrtam |

Puujayasva Vivasvantam Bhaaskaram Bhuvane[a-Ii]shvaram ||6||

Meaning of Sanskrit Words

rashmi: = beam/ray of light [rashmima = sun; rashmimantam = haloed with rays, possessed of rays, crowned with rays]

samudyantam = having risen up [in the morning] [udaya: = to rise, samudaya: = to rise (in a good manner), samudyata =raised, lifted up]

devAsura = devAs and asurAs

namaskrutam = namas + krutam [namas = bowing/salutation, krutam = doing it; namaskaranam is the nominal verb form]

pUjayasva = agastyA is addressing rAmA here and saying “You Worship!”

vivasvantam = AdityA [vivasvat = brilliant/shining one; vivasta/vivasvAn = sun; vaivasvatA is the current Manu, son of sUryA]

bhAskaram = sun [bhAs = light, brightness; it also has a meaning of

“revealing, making clear” and light surely does that. The word “bhAshyam” has this same root; kara = to do, create; bhAskaram = the one that creates light]

bhuvana Eshvaram = ruler of the worlds [bhuvana refers to all the worlds; Esh = possessor, owner; Eshvaram = master, lord]

Meaning of the Verse

Pay respects to the risen sUryA, crowned with rays of light, who is most fitting to be worshipped, who is the ruler of all the worlds, who is the creator of light, who is brilliant, and venerated by the devAs and asurAs.

Meaning in Tamil

அண்டங்கள் அனைத்தாளும் ஆதவனை

விண்ணோர் வணங்கும் வெய்யோனை

பூரண நல்உதயமாகும் கதிரொளியவனை

பூசித்திடுவாய் புனிதமுடன் இராமனே

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